A Daily Updating Blog of Important Events In History That Never Occurred Today.
Imagine what would be, if history had occurred a bit differently. Who says it didn't, somewhere? These fictional news items explore that possibility. Written by Alternate Historian

August 22

In 1485, the usurper Richard III was killed by his nephew, Edward V, the rightful King of England with an assist from his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York.

Restoration of King Edward VFortunately, the teenage Princes had managed to escape their unlawful incarceration at the Tower of London. The restored monarch took charge on the eve of the Battle of Bosworth Field narrowly avoiding a second usurpation by Henry Tudor.

For the sake of the troops morale, Richard was permitted to die with honour on the field of battle. But he refused, and in the course of a brief struggle, was killed by his nephew.

The regicide was covered up for five hundred years. But on 4 February 2013 an excavation found a skeleton that was, beyond reasonable doubt, that of Richard III, based on a combination of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of Richard's appearance, and a comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with two descendants of Richard's sister. Also found was the arrow head that killed him.

It is 1485, and King Richard III of Lancaster is facing the Welsh invader, Henry Tudor, on Bosworth Field. The tide is starting to turn in Henry's favor .. when Henry's stepfather, Lord Thomas Stanley, surprises everyone by switching to Richard's side, in one of his most dramatic shows of disloyalty. An article from our Happy Endings thread devised by Jackie Rose.

Happy Endings 30:
A Double Happy Ending
He had been planning to support Henry all along, he cries .. but now that he has heard of his own wife Margaret's love affair with her brother-in-law Jasper Tudor, the whole family can go to Hell. He is as good as his word, as he proves by leading his soldiers in charging off the field. Always a sensible man, Henry Tudor soon follows him. With nothing left to lose, Jasper and Margaret declare their love openly and move in together.

This leaves Richard free to marry Elizabeth of York (pictured), the daughter of his brother Edward, the previous king, thus cementing his rule. Since Elizabeth had long been in love with him anyway, it was a happy ending for both couples: Margaret and Jasper and Elizabeth and Richard. No one is sure what became of Henry Tudor.

In 1485, the destruction of King Richard III at Bosworth Field leaves Henry Tudor with the largest army in England.

Young Prince Edward found alive in the TowerWhen he reaches London to take the crown for himself, he finds that his distant cousins, Edward and Richard (alive), are in fact still alive in the Tower of London. Since their "deaths" had been a rationale behind his own invasion, he would have had them killed, but his soldiers spread the news too quickly; he was forced to crown Edward instead of himself, and pledged his allegiance to the young king. Recommendation: visit Robbie Taylor's Amazon Author Page.

In 1862, on this day Abraham Lincoln wrote a letter in response to an editorial by Horace Greeley of the New York Tribune which had urged the complete abolition of slavery.

An Official DutyMaking a clear distinction between personal opinion and official duty Lincoln placed the emphasis on saving the Union. Therefore it was a complete shock when he published the Emancipation Proclamation only weeks later. Cynics guessed that the ink was already dry on the document when Lincoln wrote his letter to the Tribune, and he was simply waiting for an opportune moment (a Union military victory) to justify such a complete reversal of government policy.

But Lincoln never had the chance to reveal the truth of the matter because two years later, the actor and matinee idol John Wilkes Booth shot him dead. Following the bloodbath of the spring, this further horror destroyed any remaining appetite to continue the war, and threw the administration into complete disarray. However President Hamlin managed to find out a way out: a truce that hardened into a peace settlement, and a "rump Dixie" which emerged based on Confederate-occupied Southern territory. The Union retained the border states plus recovered territories that had seceded, namely Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, West Virginia, Atlantic and Gulf coasts, half of Louisiana, Mississippi Valley and of course half of Virginia.

Unlike the assassinated President, Booth did have a brief opportunity to set down a testimony which made a grim mockery of both Greeley and Lincoln's visions of the future (he blamed Lincoln for abolishing slavery rather than making an overtly pro-Confederacy statement). The Union had not been saved, and worse still, "Free blacks" were classified as citizens of the reunited Dixie unionist states but not of the US itself. In effect the Emancipation Proclamation had only taken partial effect in the Union-occupied territories, and the real consequence was the prevention of a mass migration of African-Americans to the Northern Cities. Because as much as white Northerners hated slavery, they had absolutely no intention of accepting the principle of racial equality. Whereas in the South, by the turn of the century slavery had morphed into a form of peonage/caste system due to the joint pressure from London and the dangers of runaways to Union territory. Of course in time, economic equality would begin to develop, and today, we can only speculate as to what might have happened if Lincoln had lived to introduce constitutional amendments, it might even have been a "bitter legacy" of northern ghettos.

In 1100 BC, on this day the Dorian invasion of Greece was repulsed, and their vengeful King Hyllus killed in a cataclysmic battle fought at the gates of Mycenae.

Mycenaean repulse Dorian InvasionThe one-time inhabitants of Southern Greece known as the Heraclids had been forced into exile, but had regrouped and then returned in huge numbers to destroy Mycenaean Civilization. Their powerful army that swept down from the Peloponnese Mountains and threatened such a nemesis only to be crushed at the last.

Writing five hundred years later, Thucydides recorded that "Eighty years after Troy the Dorians and the sons of Herakles sought1 to make themselves masters of the Peloponnese. It was with difficulty and over a long period that peace returned".

In 1922, on this day at a place called Béal na mBláth ("the Mouth of the Flowers") in his home territory of west Cork, Michael Collins secretly met with political rival Éamon de Valera to agree a peace formula that would bring an end to the Irish Civil War.

Happy Endings Part 8
The Mouth of the Flowers
The two Irish leaders had found themselves on the opposing side of the Anglo-Irish Treaty that had partitioned the island by creating a twenty-six county free state in the South. The core of their historic agreement was a joint commitment to use exclusively peaceful means to work towards the creation of a thirty-two country Republic. But in a larger sense, it was a bold move forward for the political situation that had to begin with a refusal to allow the British Government to continue to shape events in Ireland.

Always a man to lead from the front, the "Big Fellow" had made his own personal decision to set off in a different direction. Because shortly afterwards, he resigned his post as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army, entered private life and married sweatheart Kitty Kiernan. After a political career that spanned four decades, de Valera became the Patron of the Michael Collins Foundation, declaring that "It is my considered opinion that in the fullness of time history will record the greatness of Collins and it will be recorded at my expense".

In 1940, seeking to reverse Eire's government policy of entering the war on the side of Great Britain in order to win full independence for a united Ireland Republican gun men assassinated Michael Collins in Belfast on this day.
Watch the Youtube Clip of "'You're seven minutes late"

Seven Minutes that Changed Ireland
By Ed and Scott Palter
In return for a United Ireland and massive US aid during and after the war, a limited form of participation was proposed based upon the the so-called "Canadian compromise". To wit, that the Irish would not be conscripted for land service but could be available for navy/convoy duty.

However the core issue was that Collins had been advocating special protections and rights for the Protestants in the nine counties of Ulster.

In 1944, on this day Adolf Hitler decreed that if Germany was forced out of Paris the city and all it's landmarks should be left a smoldering ruin.

Paris burns bright redThe Führer's order was relayed by Chief of Staff Admiral Alfred Jodl to Dietrich von Choltitz (pictured) who had been promoted to the rank of General der Infanterie and then appointed military governor of Paris just three weeks earlier.

And his instructions were explicit, "The city must not fall into the enemy's hand except lying in complete debris".To avoid any possibility of confusion Hitler also phoned him in a rage, screaming, "Brennt Paris?" ("Is Paris burning?"). In effect, Von Choltitz was required to organize a rapid disengagement of German Forces whilst simultaneously dealing with a complete uprising of the city's inhabitants.

Meanwhile U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the head of the Allied invasion, had refused to divert troops to liberate Paris. Resistance forces loyal to De Gaulle failed to overcome red influence during and after Liberation, and were unable to prevent communists taking control of the city and then of France. Ironically, the destruction of the cultural fabric of the city removed any symbolic vestiges of the past, ushering in the new and frightening communist future that Adolf Hitler had predicted.

In 1485, the Wars of the Roses had caused battles for thirty years as the House of York and the House of Lancaster made attempts whenever possible to seize the throne of England. The House of York had gained dominant control, though upheavals continued, such as the revolt led by the Duke of Buckingham in an effort to put forth Henry Tudor as king.

Richard III Affirms Legitimacy at Bosworth Field Richard III had put down the rebellion, but the Tudors had not been utterly defeated. They would have their final confrontation at Bosworth Field near Ambion Hill in Leicestershire.

Richard, who was known for his political deviousness, was not overwhelmingly accepted. His nephews, one of whom was the former king Edward V, had disappeared shortly after Richard had taken the crown. Rumors stated that they had been killed and their bodies hidden in the Tower of London, but few were willing to challenge Richard directly. Henry Tudor had his own claim to the throne and came out of exile in France with an army, arriving in Wales on August 1. He gathered strength from allies while Richard mustered his own troops and raced to meet him.

Richard's 10,000 men were divided under the command of himself, the Duke of Norfolk, and the Earl of Northumberland. Henry opposed him with only 5,000 men. Waiting on the wings with 6,000 men were the Stanleys, brothers Thomas and William, who were forced into loyalty under Richard by the imprisonment and threatened execution of Thomas' eldest son, George. As the battle became thick, Richard found himself betrayed by the hesitating Northumberland and decided to lead the charge against Henry himself. In the gamble, Richard and his knights became separated from the main force, and the Tudors pressed upon them.

William Stanley decided that the time was right to strike. He drove for Richard, signaling his army to save the king and serve as reinforcements. With the second charge, the battle was won for Richard and the House of York. Henry Tudor was slain in battle. Tradition tells that Richard, looking over the body of Henry, mumbled, "Treason, treason, treason, treason, treason".

Having been satisfied with the loyalty of the Stanleys, Richard released Thomas' son and rewarded William with the lands seized from Northumberland as punishment. Richard would go on to rule until 1507, marrying Anne of Lancaster and pacifying his populace to achieve a return to peace for England. He was well known as a beneficiary to the church (though rumors said his gifts were out of guilt for evil deeds past and present). He would be succeeded by his son Richard IV, and the Yorkist line would continue.

Marginal stability would reign in the sixteenth century until the Protestant Reformation took hold of Europe. Under Richard V, England would maintain its connection with Rome despite the efforts of reformist Thomas Cromwell, but the Scots in the north began to adopt Calvinism. While the Thirty Years' War raged in the Germanies, Scotland and England were both well known for sending mercenaries to their respective sides. Eventually, the war would spill onto Britain with the Bishops' War would begin in 1633. Much of the North of England was devastated, and recurring drafts caused uprisings among the English, finally ending with the Civil War led by Oliver Cromwell for the Protestants.

After the wars when Protestant England gave up its short-lived republic for rule by William of Orange, interrupted peace would continue between it and Scotland. Both would participate on various sides in wars, continually sparring for domination in colonies both in the Old and New World. Finally, with the Seven Years' War in 1763, Scotland and England would define a boundary across the St. Lawrence River with Scotland in Canada and England in New England to the south. When the American Revolution broke out the next decade, the Scots were quick to help the rebels establish their independence. England would return the favor in the Canadian Revolution in 1864-67.

When World War I broke out in 1914, great bloodshed would follow in the trenches of Northumberland, but Scotland would find itself on the losing end with the collapse of Germany in 1918. The following economic depression cost England its longtime possession of Ireland, but Scotland would join Italy, Germany, and other European states in fascist revolutions. World War II would be even bloodier for Scotland, but occupation by English, Americans, and French would prove beneficial as the nation rebuilt into a productive member of the European Union today. England, meanwhile, continues as a stable state with distant memories of Bosworth Field as retold in Shakespeare's stirring history, Richard III.

In 1898, armed hostilities in the Spanish-American War come to an end. Ignominiously defeated, Spain is forced to relinquish control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippine Islands to the United States. An installment from the 49th State thread.

The 49th State by Eric LippsDebate over what to do with America's new possessions is fierce. In the case of Cuba in particular, there had been considerable sentiment in favor of independence prior to the outbreak of war, when lurid articles regarding the real and alleged brutalities of the Spanish colonial regime appeared regularly in the newspapers of media baron William Randolph Hearst. Once Cuba passed into U.S. hands, however, ardor for freeing it cooled considerably. Businessmen liked the cheap sugar and other products Cuba provided, while naval officers saw it as an ideal site for bases.

The colonialist faction would ultimately triumph. In formal peace traty, signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, no mention is made of independence for Cuba. The following year, by act of Congress, the possessions taken from Spain will be declared U.S. territories.

On January 1, 1959, Cuba will become the 49th U.S. state. That same year, Hawaii, also annexed in 1898, will become the 50th; Alaska will formally become the 51st state the following year, and in 1965, the Philippines will become the 52nd. In 1970, Puerto Rico will at last become the 53rd U.S. state. Of the territories taken from Spain in 1898, only Guam will not have become a state by the turn of the century, chiefly due to its small population.

In 1964, the youthful and charismatic Lieut. Gov. Fidel Castro of Cuba is elected to the U.S. Senate. Castro, a former law student who entered politics in the 1950s, will be an impassioned voice for America's growing Spanish-speaking populace, and will be one of the sponsors of the Senate resolution formally granting statehood to the Philippines.

In the Senate, Castro will start out as a solidly moderate Democrat who will initially support the war in Vietnam, but will grow disillusioned, finally announcing his outright opposition in 1969. His change of heart will anger many conservatives in his home state, sparking a challenge from Republican Rep. Fulgencio Batista, a decorated Korean War veteran, in 1970. Sen. Castro will survive, however, and in his new incarnation as foreign-policy liberal will oppose President Charlton Heston's contra war against the left-wing government of Ernesto 'Che' Guevara in Bolivia in the 1980s.

In 2000, in a hotly-contested election, Democratic nominee Fidel Castro will narrowly defeat former Texas governor George W. Bush to win the U.S. presidency, becoming the first native Spanish-speaker to hold that office.

In 1951, on this day citizens of East Berlin riot against the government of East German chancellor Walter Ulbricht after Ulbricht announced that food rations would be cut in half. The riots were just the beginning of a tidal wave of civil unrest that would eventually drive Ulbricht from power in the aftermath of the Bellus-Zyra disaster.

 - Walter Ulbricht
Walter Ulbricht

On this day in 1971, French president Georges Pompidou was killed as riots swept Paris in reaction to the news that the China virus had reached France.                            

French President
French President - Georges Pompidou
Georges Pompidou
C-in-C

On this day in 1922, Micheal Sean O Coileain aka Michael John 'Mick' Collins, Commander-in-Chief of the Irish Free State Army is shot during an Anti-Treaty ambush at Beal na mBlath, County Cork, during the Irish Civil War.

The 'Big Fellow' survives, serving three times as Irish head of government; as Priomh Aire, as the second President of the Executive Council and the first Taoiseach. Collins is universally considered the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland

C-in-C  - Michael Collins
Michael Collins
"I look at you all see the love there that's sleeping while my guitar gently weeps. I Look at the floor and I see it needs sweeping still my guitar gently weeps. I don't know why nobody told you how to unfold your love. I don't know how someone controlled you they bought and sold you. "
~ Lyrics to "While my guitar gently Weeps" After meeting on the set of A Hard Day's Night, Pattie married George Harrison on January 21, 1966, during the heyday of his group, The Beatles. Harrison's friend Eric Clapton, first of The Yardbirds, then of Cream, also fell in love with her. Pattie went on to divorce Harrison on June 9, 1977, and later marry Clapton on March 27, 1979. She and Clapton divorced in June 1988.

Harrison and Clapton worked together on While my guitar gently Weeps, a thinly disguised reference to the tragic love triangle between Pattie Boyd and the two guitarists. The lyrics are available at at Lyrics Freak.

On this day in 2007, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe was interviewed by the Alliance for Democracy's representative Peter Greste. Deep concern was raised throughout the Alliance following the death sentence impose upon five security officials of Centurion Rank.

Attempting a plea bargain, all five admitted trying to kill prominent black activist Frank Chikane in 1989 by lacing his underwear with a nerve toxin.

His Excellency
His Excellency - Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe

Rev Chikane, who is now a director in the president's office, has said he did not want to see the men go to prison. Vlok sought forgiveness from Rev Chikane last year by washing his feet. President Mugabe supported the actions of the new South African Government in dealing with Draka-era divisions. Justice was a pre-requisite for reconciliaton in President Mugabe's view.

On this day in 1944, Namur was liberated by the Allies after only minimal German resistance.

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On this day in 1973, Castle Rock sheriff Alan Pangborn and his chief deputy, Norris Ridgewick, found the badly decomposed bodies of town councilman Danforth Keeton III and Castle Rock Public Works employee Hugh Priest in shallow graves near the city limits.

Keeton and Priest had disappeared around the same time that Thad Beaumont, Polly Chalmers and George Bannerman were murdered; examination of fibers found on the corpses of Keeton and Priest would eventually link their deaths to the Beaumont, Chalmers, and Bannerman murders.

Sheriff
Sheriff - Alan Pangborn
Alan Pangborn
Red Army General

On this day in 1941, Red Army general Andrei Vlasov was summarily court-martialled and executed after authorizing one of his divison commanders to pull out of the village of Kaluga.

Vlasov, who prior to his arrest had been in charge of the Soviet ground forces defending Moscow, had violated Stalin's famous 'Not One Step Back' order forbidding Soviet troops from retreating under any circumstances.

Red Army General - Andrei Vlasov
Andrei Vlasov

In 1991, in the Soviet Union, faced with mounting resistance to their coup, the "Emergency Committee" and its backers dispatch tanks to the Russian Parliament, where they are confronted by an angry crowd of both armed and unarmed civilians led by a number of Russian parliamentarians, including firebrand Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who will strike a memorably telegenic pose of defiance before the tanks.

Faced with this show of resistance, the troops falter, some of them turning around and a surprising number actually switching sides.

Pres. Candidate
Pres. Candidate - Patrick Buchanan
Patrick Buchanan

With the failure of its assault on the center of resistance at the Parliament building, the coup collapses as junior officers and political officials, including the leadership of the various Soviet republics, turn against the Committee.

In the United States, President Jack Kemp praises the countercoup. "The so-called Emergency Committee has been revealed as the hollow shell it is, a band of ambitious men with no legitimacy whatever. It is to be hoped that the recognized government of the Soviet Union will swiftly be restored and that the perpetrators of the August 18 coup will be brought to justice".

Once again Kemp's words will ignite fury on the right. In an op-ed in the Aug. 23 New York Times, combative conservative Patrick J. Buchanan will write, "The President sounds as if he is shilling for the Communists. Let's not forget that the 'recognized government' he talks about is a brutal Red tyranny which has murdered millions of its own people and engaged in an orgy of terror and destruction worldwide since 1917. The restoration of the latest and glossiest tyrant to call himself the leader of the savage Soviet regime is a tragedy, not the blessing he makes it sound. The world will not be safe until this blood-soaked barbarism is banished altogether from the world".

Many people mock Buchanan's piece as over the top, but it strikes a chord with conservatives, who begin to speak of backing Buchanan in a run against Kemp in the GOP primaries.

I was feeling wonderful, and had gotten to know the lovely lady again, but planewalkers get antsy after a brief stay anywhere. So, it was time to be off again. I was going to go back to my home plane for a visit; to see if anybody else I knew had been taken off by the UFO's. It's really a terrible problem, but nobody's come up with a solution for it just yet. The aliens are always one step ahead of us whenever we try something new to fight them.
I have a feeling they're led by a planewalker, but I haven't found them out yet. As soon as I do, they're going to get a stern lecture on the rights of individuals to be free from kidnapping, and then a quick disintegration ray in the face.
I came out free from the disorientation that usually accompanies leaving the mid-planes. When you go back home, there's no need for adjustment; your cells already belong there. The conjunction to my home plane from Sabala's is in Babylonia, the capital of the North American Confederation. It's also where I was born, and where my parents lived until they were abducted by the UFO's when I was fourteen. That's when I decided to go out planewalking, since the UFO's liked to come back for the rest of your family a member at a time.
Babylonia's a huge city, about twelve million people, and it sprawls around the largest port in my world, on the gulf coast of North America. If it weren't for the unfortunate UFO infestations around the city, more people would see us as the cultural center of the world. But, a little hint of danger, and the wimpy little types who like to attend opera and the theater abandon us. What are you going to do?
Some of the defectors are OK guys, though, and I know a few of them. I walked up to the house of one of them, Wilhemina Barclett. She took a human name when she defected, but doesn't have the best taste, if you get my drift. I rang her bell and waited.
'Hello?' Her voice rang out on the intercom, and then her face appeared on the little screen. 'Oh, Gabriel!' she let out a little squeal at seeing me. She's got a head that's shiny as fine china, but she's a sweet and lovely person. 'Come in, dear, come in.' The door opened for me, and I went into her drawing room, where she ran up and hugged me. 'Oh, my dear little man, it's been much too long. Have your found your sexual paradise yet?'
'I'm afraid not, Willie. The quest goes on.' She sat me down beside her on a couch, and bustled about preparing me a drink. 'I just helped a friend create his paradise, though. Did you ever meet Patrice?'
Her eyes turned from their usual deep green to the dark black almonds that signaled concentration. 'I think I have. African gentleman, somewhat disdainful of Europeans?'
'That's Patrice. We put down a rebellion of Europeans in an African-dominated world, and his search is over.'
'Oh, my.' She handed me a wine glass and sat down beside me, sucking thoughtfully at a smoke-filter. 'That must have created quite a bizarre sense of betrayal and disloyalty on your part. How did you cope?'
Willie loves pop-psychology, and she's always trying to analyze me. 'I'm OK. After all, they're not my people, right?'
'Perhaps, but they were fellow humans. You come from a democratic tradition, and have always valued free will. I would think it would create at least a few strong feelings.' Her eyes turned red with amusement, and I laughed with her.
'Willie, I thought you knew me better than that - I have no strong feelings.' I gulped down the wine she'd given me. 'I can't afford them.'
She looked at me sideways for a minute, then let it drop. She often knows when I won't answer any more questions. I have a feeling she's telepathic, but I can never catch her at it. Aliens; can't live with them, can't live without them. 'Have you heard from Ph'ssyank?'
'Not since I led him to the mid-planes. I think he's probably trapped at whatever conjunction he decided to get off at. I'm pretty sure he didn't know how to find one on his own.' I finished off the wine and handed her back the glass.
'Would you like more?'
'Please. You know you have the finest cellar on the planet.'
She went black with embarrassment, and stumbled over to her bar. I have no idea why she gets so flustered when I compliment her choice in alcohol, but it's the best way to get on her good side if you ever meet her. It's a side trip I highly recommend. Willie's a cutie.
'Where are you off to next?'
She'd given me a different wine, this time, one of her most potent, and it gave me a nice buzz. I set it down to keep myself from getting light-headed. 'I don't know. I thought I might look up some of the old crowd here, see if any of them are interested in going off to look for paradise again. Should be good for a laugh or two.'
She blew a smoke ring at me. 'There might not be too many of your associates left. The city was raided fairly heavily last week. They're still trying to get an accurate account of who's left.'
'These people are probably still around. They've avoided raids in the past.' I looked at her with concern. There were reprisals against aliens, sometimes, after the raids. 'Are you all right? Did anybody try anything?'
'I have certain defensive resources, Gabriel. I am perfectly fine.' Her eyes were red again, and I wondered what kind of private jokes were going through her mind. It's maddeningly frustrating to be so close to someone and never really know what they were thinking. 'Would you like to stay the night? I just received a new shipment of artwork from Asia that is simply delightful. The artist is an Arythiok who was raised in a small Chinese village; the blend of alien perspective with traditional Chinese subject matter is captivating.'
'I'd love to see it, of course, but can I use your phone? I'd like to call a couple of my friends, to let them know I'm in this plane.'
'Certainly. You know where I keep everything.' She stood and wandered off to her basement gallery. 'I'll be enjoying the art when you're finished.'Story Chunk 2

On this day in 1953, Chinese People's Liberation Army general Lin Bao was executed by firing squad after having been convicted by a military tribunal of complicity in the assassination of Mao Zedong.

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In 1972, the International Olympic Committee refused to throw Rhodesia out of the Olympic Games with just four days to go before the opening ceremony in the German city of Munich. African nations were demanding Rhodesia's expulsion on the grounds the country was an illegal regime and members of its team were not therefore British subjects. 'The political pressures in sport are becoming intolerable' said IOC President Avery Brundage.
In 1986, John Stalker, the deputy chief constable of Greater Manchester police was charged with misconduct. He has been dismissed from duty with immediate effect. Mr Stalker's judgement comes three months after he was suspended following allegations he was associating with criminals. The complaints against him alleged he had attended social events where members of the so-called 'Quality Street gang' were present. The Quality Street gang are said to be a group of Manchester's leading villains involved in everything from serious crime to running arms to the IRA.
In 1978, the former British Viceroy of Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta, died aged 89 at his home in Mombasa. Kenyatta was the second indigenous Viceroy after Idi Amin's appointment in 1971, as the British sought to subdue the Winds of Change blowing across the continent. Former British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan was the co-architect of the policy, working closely with Canadian Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson on the No Independence Before African Rule.
In 1989, the Texas-based improvisational comedy troupe Deranged Durang appeared on The Tonight Show. Their routine was bleeped out so many times that only half their act was heard; but it generated so much interest that HBO gave them an uncensored special, which became its top-rated show of the year. This sparked a wave of improvisational comedy across the U.S.
In 1968, Cynthia Lennon is sued for divorce by former Pete Best bandmate, John Lennon. Mrs. Lennon, apparently unsatisfied by her husband's lack of musical success, had begun seeing other musicians, and Lennon had had enough. The bitter court battle was eagerly watched by Bestmaniacs, because several salacious details about Pete Best's time in Germany came spilling out during the hearings.
In 1942, American poet Langston Hughes publishes his epic poem, Whitman In Repose, an unflinching portrayal of the first Communist president, Walt Whitman. Although the work is flattering in the extreme to Whitman, many Communists object to Hughes' references to Whitman's alleged homosexuality, and in the first few editions of the poem, these parts are excised by government censors.
In 1750, Captain Lionel Greystoke, using a new Mlosh naval vessel, landed on the continent of Australia, and established a brutal British colony there. The natives were often hunted for sport by the British. When the Mlosh liberated the continent a quarter-century later, the Aboriginal population was universal in its alliance with them.
In 1485, the War of the Roses ended at Bosworth Field as noble King Richard III defeated and killed the pretender to the throne, Henry Tudor. The Lancastrians still remaining alive after that day had the gall to spread rumors that Richard had murdered his two nephews in order to gain power; Richard responded by holding a victory banquet in London where his nephews were honored guests. After this, the Lancastrian branch of the Plantagenet family withered.
In 1914, the Belgian army collapses after large desertion of Flemish soldiers.
On 20 June 1483, Richard Plantagent was born at Fotheringay Castle. His was a short and unhappy life. After the death of his brother Edward IV on April 9, 1483, it was expected that he would assume the post of Lord Protector, governing as regent for his young nephews Edward and Richard. However he was defeated by the naked ambition of 'kingmaker', Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham who coveted the post for himself, and then murdered the Princes (he ludicruously claimed they were playing and had fallen to their deaths at the Tower of London).Two large-scale rebellions rose up in support of Richard. The first, in 1483, was led by die-hard allies of Edward IV, most notably Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. The revolt collapsed and Warwick was executed at Salisbury, near the Bull's Head Inn. However, in 1485, another rebellion arose against Buckingham, headed by the monster Henry Tudor, 2nd Earl of Richmond (later King Henry VII) and his uncle Jasper. The rebels landed troops but Richard fell in the Battle of Bosworth Field, as the last Plantagenet protender and the last English Prince to die in battle.
In 1922, Micheal Sean o Coileain aka Michael John 'Mick' Collins, Commander-in-Chief of the Irish Free State Army is shot during an Anti-Treaty ambush at Beal na mBlath, County Cork, during the Irish Civil War. The 'Big Fellow' survives, serving three times as Irish head of government; as Priomh Aire, as the second President of the Executive Council and the first Taoiseach. Collins is universally considered the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland


August 21

In 1968, Nicolae Ceauşescu, leader of Communist Romania, publicly condemned the Soviet led Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, encouraging the Romanian population to arm itself against possible Soviet reprisals.

Prague Spring Crisis WidensAddressing an enthusiastic crowd of one hundred thousand people in Bucharest's Revolution Square, he boldly denounced the Soviet's intervention and declared that it was a "grave error and constituted a serious danger to peace in Europe and for the prospects of world socialism". Also he encouraged the population to take up arms in order to meet any similar manoeuvre in the country: he received an enthusiastic initial response, with many people, who were by no means communist, willing to enrol in the newly formed paramilitary Patriotic Guards.

Although Ceauşescu was already a staunch opponent of Soviet influences and one to have declared himself on Alexander Dubček's side, the speech was a provocation on many levels. Certainly after Hungary and Czechoslovakia it invited an attack on a third Warsaw Pact Country in a dozen years, which when considered with the Berlin Wall crisis, portray the Kremlin in the harshest possible light of suppression. However the possible replacements, Gheorghe Apostol, Ion Gheorghe Maurer or Emil Bodnaras were all less than ideal. And finally in addition to Romania'a large standing army and difficult terrain there was the intelligence report that Henri Coanda had invented a secret laser weapon that could cut, perhaps even melt, Soviet tanks.

In 1791, on this day the slaves of Saint Domingue rose in revolt and plunged the colony into civil war (the signal to begin the revolt had actually been given by a high priest of vodou during a religious ceremony at Bois Caïman a week before ).

Whiff of GrapeshotWithin the next ten days, slaves had taken control of the entire Northern Province in an unprecedented slave revolt. Whites kept control of only a few isolated, fortified camps. Because the plantation owners had long feared such a revolt, they were well armed and prepared to defend themselves.

At this vital juncture, a decisive military leader emerged called Napoleon, son of the Corsican emigré Carlo Maria Buonaparte. For months he had advised that the slaves only needed a "whiff of grapeshot" to subdue their ardour. However the Revolutionary Government in Paris could hardly be trusted to authorize such a decision, in fact Napoleon feared that their representatives would grant the island autonomy. And so he came forward with a controversial plan, for the white planters to make an agreements with Great Britain to declare British sovereignty over the islands. The resulting was the landing of a sizeable invasion force led by a young British officer by the name of Arthur Wellesley.

In 1754, on this day the British Colonel Banastre Tarleton (pictured) better known variously as "Bloody Ban", "The Butcher", "The Green Dragoon" was born in the City of Liverpool. He was the fourth of seven children born to the merchant, ship owner and slave trader, John Tarleton of Liverpool, who served as Mayor of Liverpool and had extensive trading links with Britain's American colonies. An article from the American Heroes thread

Jefferson killed in the Tragedy at CharlottesvilleIn December 1775, he sailed from Cork as a volunteer to North America where rebellion had recently broken out triggering the American Revolutionary War. Six years later he marched with Cornwallis into Virginia.

Tarleton undertook a series of small expeditions while in Virginia. Among them was the notorious raid on Charlottesville, where he captured Governor Thomas Jefferson who had been attending a meeting of the Virginia legislature. Out of a sense of British fair play, the Assembly building was burnt down and Jefferson shot by Redcoats. But of course hate begats hate and the British derived no absolutely no advantage from the brutal field execution of the enlightened genius who drafted the Declaration of Independence. And Tarleton himself was killed by American soldiers after the surrender at Yorktown.

At the suggestion of President Aaron Burr, in 1801 a monument to Jefferson was built next to a reconstruction of the Assembly building. In 1830, upon her ascension to the throne, Queen Charlotte paid a State visit to pray for the victims of the American revolution. But in a sense it was unnecessary to commemorate his sacrifice. Because in her diary that evening, Her Majesty noted that it was as if Jefferson was in the next room the whole time.

In 1940, on this day Leon Trotsky was smuggled out of Mexico City.

Next Year in JerusalemHe disappeared from view with the assistance of agents of the Lehi. But after Operation Barbarossa and the fall of his nemesis Stalin, Soviet efforts to assassinate him receded sharply and he next emerged as a shadowy figure in the Civil War in Mandatory Palestine.

Due to his controversial past, he was forced to play a strategic, rather than his familiar leadership role in the formation of the State of Israel. However, his vital contribution was well known, in a private letter to the Commander of Jerusalem, David Ben-Gurion wrote "Leon was the best man we had" [1].

In 1689, on this day Viscount John Graham of Claverhouse (Bonnie Dundee) led the Jacobite rebels to a second glorious victory at the the Battle of Dunkeld (Blàr Dhùn Chaillinn).

Battle of Dunkeld
Article written by Ed & Jared Myers
After King James fled the country the English Parliament had offered the throne to William of Orange and his wife Mary (the Protestant daughter of James to whom William owed his claim to the throne).

A convention held in Edinburgh decided that the Scottish government would pledge loyalty to William, but a number of the Highland clans opposed this decision, and their leader was Bonnie Dundee.

He raised the royal standard on Dundee Law, and left for the Highlands to raise the army that would triumph over the Covenanter cause at Killiecrankie and then Dunkeld.

In 1937, on this day a Secret Gospel authored by the brother of King Jesus was discovered in the Transjordan.

DogmaThe apocrypha described a prophetic warning at the outset of the Jewish War in 66 CE. The narratives then documents how the third "Bishop" (Vice Regent) Prince Judas Iscariot led a depleted, scattered community of followers out of mortal danger.

Their destination was Pella in Transjordania where they re-established a Gentile-Pauline Church. This forced relocation explained the loss of central importance of the Jerusalem Church which now moved the Christian centre of gravity to Rome.

The discovery meant that those same authorities in the Vatican were now presented with difficult questions about the historical accuracy of an archetypical traitor. Of course the rehabilitation of Judas was an explosive issue much larger than the legacy of one disciple. And Rome's Axis partner faced a direct challenge to the false Nazi assertion that worldwide Jewry was an unexpungeable evil tracing its history back to Judas' betrayal of Jesus.

In 1831, on this day at midnight Nat Turner and his trusted followers arose and marched out of their quarters. They went from plantation to plantation further, freeing other slaves as they went.

Nat Turner Begins his Slave ExodusNat Turner, born October 2, 1800, in southern Virginia, was a bright slave who had repeatedly received visions from God command his life. When he had run away from his master at the age of 23, he returned having had a vision showing him to do so. A persuasive speaker, Nat often gave services for a black Baptist congregation, earning him the nickname "The Prophet". In 1828, he received one of his most powerful visions. He described the experience, which was written later in a book by his lawyer Thomas Gray as hearing "a loud noise in the heavens, and the Spirit instantly appeared to me and said the Serpent was loosened, and Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for the sins of men, and that I should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast approaching when the first should be last and the last should be first ". It struck him that he was to lead a great insurrection to bring down the machine of slavery.

A solar eclipse in February of 1831 showed him that the time for his rebellion had come. While he and his fellow conspirators had planned to liberate themselves on July 4th, illness and logistics had delayed them. On August 13, atmospheric interference (which could have been debris from the recent eruption of Mount Saint Helens) made the sun appear a rich bluish-green. Nat realized that his first interpretation of overtaking of the whites was not what he was meant to do; that was why the insurrection was unable to take place on the fourth of July. Instead, he was looking for a land of blue water and greenery to match the vision. Otherwise, the sun would have been blood red.

Seeking guidance, Nat remembered the story of Moses and his exodus to the land of milk and honey. The fight against the serpents of the desert had merely slowed down the Israelites, much like the whites had kept back the black slaves. Fashioning a rough copper snake and attaching it to a rod matching that of Moses, Nat put forth his plan to lead his people out of bondage. He chose the direction of Northwest, across the mountains and Ohio valley toward the Great Lakes, perhaps even to Canada.

At midnight on August 21, he and his trusted followers arose and marched out of their quarters. They went from plantation to plantation further, freeing other slaves as they went. For protection, the slaves carried with them knives and axes, though a few had firearms. At Nat's direction, the slaves fought back only when whites tried to stop the growing army of slaves. Several white masters were left beaten, but none were killed (some later died of injuries).

For two days, the slave revolt grew until a white militia was organized and place roadblocks in the way of the singing, marching slaves who sought their freedom. Nat halted his people and attempted to preach at the whites, though only a few words could be heard over the jeering. Someone opened fire, missing Nat, but causing panic in both crowds. The armed blacks charged, overwhelming the outnumbered whites, who dispersed after a brief struggle. Swearing revenge, the whites spread the word that the blacks had attacked so that US Army troops were called up throughout Virginia.

The slaves crossed the Shenandoah Valley into western Virginia before the Army caught up with them. Artillery, horsemen, and eight hundred infantry (many of whom had come from as far away as Norfolk, where the USS Natchez and the USS Warren were anchored) attacked the camps of the slaves, and the exodus was stopped. Dozens of slaves were killed, hundreds returned to their masters. A few, including Nat Turner, managed to evade capture in the wilderness. Most of those escaped into Ohio, but Nat turned back, realizing that even Moses had not been able to go into the holy land. Instead, he returned to call for the release of his people who had been captured.

The call was answered by immediate arrest. Nat was convicted as a murderer in a well publicized trial that approached a kangaroo court. He was hanged, flayed, beheaded, and quartered, the archaic punishment for treason, which inflamed abolitionists throughout the United States. Several small slave revolts sparked through the South, but they were quickly put down.

More effective was the writing of Nat's lawyer, Thomas Gray. His book gave the firsthand account of Nat's exodus, including descriptions of life under slavery. It spread even across the Atlantic, where it became a bestseller among the abolitionists of Britain. The intelligence of black men was proven, and, after the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833, Britain began putting diplomatic and economic pressure on the United States to do the same.

The South struggled to shake its black badge of slavery led by President Andrew Jackson and wealthy slave owners. However, the damage had been done to its reputation, and increasing pressure not to buy slave goods caused economic depression. Southerners called for relief from the Federal government, which was enabled through President Polk's signing of the Manumission Act of 1846, freeing the slaves and giving compensated value for each slave. After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, many of these African Americans moved westward in what modern scholars call the Southern Exodus, recalling thought of Turner's Exodus.

Despite the end of slavery in the United States, racial tensions have continued even to the point of attempted secession of the New Mexico territory that caused the short American Civil War in the 1880s. Along with Native Americans, Asian Americans, and other minorities, it would be another century before leaders were able to establish equal rights under law.

In 1858, at the first Illinois Senatorial debate held on this day at Ottawa, Abraham Lincoln declared that his opponent Stephen A. Douglas "cares not whether slavery is voted down or voted up," and that, [in the words of Henry Clay], he would "blow out the moral lights around us" and eradicate the love of liberty.

A Slip, not a FallBy the time that the seventh debate had been held at Alton on October 15th, it was clear that Lincoln had lost the argument. Not only would Douglas cruise to victory in the Senate race, he would pursue the same logical argument in his successful bid for the Presidency two years later. Yet the voters of Illinois would experience some doubt during the secession crisis. By then Lincoln had occupied the vacant seat, a lonely voice in the Senate arguing against Douglas's "Richmond Compromise".

That compromise would leave unanswered the questioned posed to Douglas by Lincoln at Ottawa, namely ~ "[because all men were created equal], how can you deprive a negro of that equality which God and the Declaration of Independence awards to him?".The path was worn and slippery. My foot slipped from under me, knocking the other out of the way, but I recovered and said to myself, "It's a slip and not a fall".

For Lincoln, self-actualisation was a very personal matter. He had suffered from deep depression for many years. The nagging doubt that he had failed to make his mark would ultimately drive him to suicide in 1864.

Nevertheless his upbeat attitude to the future of the Union was deeply philosophical. Whilst considering the "Richmond Compromise" a setback (which he blamed upon a lack of national leadership), it was in his own remarkable words, "a slip, not a fall".

In 2004, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States closed with the issuing of two staff monographs to complement the public report from July 22. The public report including the following statement on page 344: "The Gore Commission's Report, having thoroughly canvassed available expertise in and outside of government, did not mention suicide hijackings or the use of aircraft as weapons". This harsh judgement of foresight made reference to the oversight and execution of Executive Order 13015, which established the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security of 1996.

Executive Order 13015Often called the Gore Commission in recognition that Gore was the chairman, that work group operated for six months, from August 1996 until February of 1997, when it issued its final report.

Gore's commission were mandated to provide to the President "a strategy designed to improve aviation safety and security ". Intended or not, the Commission had given the 2004 Presidential Election to the Republican Party.

In 1951, on this day India invaded Pakistan in retaliation for Pakistani shelling of Indian villages along the Indo-Pakistani border; each country blamed the other for the annihilation of most of its major cities, not knowing that those cities had actually been destroyed by multiple impacts of fragments from the late planet Zyra.

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On this day in 1944, American troops in France liberated Orleans.

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On this day in 1973, Cowboys first-string quarterback Craig Morton injured his throwing arm during a preseason team workout; the injury would sideline him for more than two months. As a result, Morton's backup Roger Staubach would be the starting QB for Dallas when the Cowboys opened their 1973 NFL season.

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On this day in 1969, serial killer Jay Sebring struck again, fatally stabbing a CHP motorcycle cop.

 - Jay Sebring
Jay Sebring
In 1994, aging acid rocker John Denver, stoned and drunk, plowed his Porsche into a tree, killing himself. He had been on a comeback, having played a few major tours in the 90's due to younger acts remaking his old hits.
In 4684, the Chinese Empire was rocked by a huge earthquake around the Himalayas. Hundreds were killed amid the first true test of the new, democratic China - Emperor Chou En-Lai dispatched aid for the citizens and troops to restore order. The disaster proved that democratic processes worked well - people were assisted without the need for martial law.
In 1968, after a flirtation with communism known as the Red Summer, Czechoslovakia was invaded by fascist troops to bring them back in line with the White governments of Western Europe. The move was roundly denounced by the Soviet States of America, which sent several planes to assist the Czechs, but who didn't feel moved enough to bring any further aid, which might have sparked a war in Europe.
In 1911, a priceless treasure was taken from public view forever when the Mona Lisa, DaVinci's masterpiece, was stolen from the Louvre. Though much suspicion fell on a guard who disappeared the same day, neither he nor the painting were ever seen again. One can only hope that the maestro's most famous work is suitably appreciated by whatever thief currently possesses it.
In 1892, seismic and volcanic activity returned to normal levels; the surviving members of the Bandai group were feted as world saviors. At the Congress of Nations, though, the Executive Committee began a meeting in which they discussed the possibility of scaling back the use of Mlosh technology on earth.


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© Today in Alternate History, 2013-. All characters appearing in this work are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental.