In 1940, a puppet government led by Wang Jingwei was established in the Republic of China under the protection of the Empire of Japan and her strategic ally, the Soviet Union .
The Fall of Comrade Stalin Part 4: the Partition of ChinaPrior to the Munich Agreement, the "young marshal" of the Manchus Zhang Xueliang had forced Nationalists and Communists to work together to defend China. But Comrade Stalin had over-estimated the resolve of the Stresa Front and occupied Lithuania. He had become the aggressor, and the World united against Bolshevik expansionism.
Of course the effective partition of China was necessary for the "Heartland Powers" to establish a contiguous land mass, nevertheless it was an interesting development for the Western victory powers of WW1 and their new allies Nazi Germany. Because all of the European colonial possessions in AsiaPac had been under dire threat since the British crisis in the Far East of 1937-8 . Now the increased ambition of the Japanese - the desire to create a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere - threatened to draw the United States into the war. But of course US had signed a law of neutrality, and public opinion was firmly set against any form of American nevertheless. Nevertheless, the Reorganized National Government of China posed a threat to the broader periphery that drew the "Rimland Powers" ever closer to the United States. In London, First Lord of the Admiralty Churchill opened a bottle of champagne and made a toast: "GENTLEMEN, WE HAVE JUST WON THE WAR", he said . This is a crossover teaser for Chris Oakley's Comrade Hitler thread.
In 1867, on this day Great Britain purchased Alaska from the Tsar. Long delayed by negotiating posturing, it was nevertheless a move that had been almost inevitable ever since the Russian-American Company entered into an agreement with the Hudson's Bay Company to grant British rights to sail through Russian territory.
Ice Crystal of the British EmpireThe name "Alaska" was already introduced in the Russian colonial period, when it was used only for the peninsula and is derived from the Aleut alaxsxaq, meaning "the mainland" or, more literally, "the object towards which the action of the sea is directed". It is also known as Alyeska, the "great land", an Aleut word derived from the same root.
An early European contact with Alaska occurred in 1741, when Vitus Bering led an expedition for the Russian Navy aboard the St. Peter. After his crew returned to Russia with sea otter pelts judged to be the finest fur in the world, small associations of fur traders began to sail from the shores of Siberia towards the Aleutian islands. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1784. But the Russians never fully colonized Alaska, and the colony was never very profitable.
Although the Tsar believed Britain and France had "no business on this continent" he had offered the British first refusal. They declined, hoping to reduce the price. The territory was then offered to the United States but President Andrew Johnson believed it was foolhardy to spend so much money on the remote region. William H. Seward, the United States Secretary of State, felt otherwise, but he was just beaten to it by the British Government who belatedly decided that they didn't want the Colony of British Columbia to be surrounded by the United States. Of course within a few years, it was a moot point because British America above the the 49th parallel was confederated, and the short-lived Colony of New Orkney became a province of Canada.
In 598, on this day Bayan I ordered his Avaro-Slavic hordes to destroy the Byzantine stronghold of Tomis.
The City of Tomis of AvarsAfter the split of the Roman Empire, the city fell under the rule of the Byzantine Emperor Maurice. Had he succeeded in holding on to Tomis, then perhaps the order of Late Antiquity could have been preserved in the region.
But his twenty-year campaign failed to prevent the Slavic landfall on the Balkans. And it would be the final installment in a series of classical Roman campaigns against the Barbarians on the Rhine and Danube.
Of course with respect to the Slavs, these campaigns had the typical trait of Roman campaigns against unorganized tribes and of what we now call asymmetric warfare.
In 1867, Tsarist Russia found itself in a difficult position with the massive peninsula of Russian America (what would later become known as Alaska).
Alaska Purchase Excludes Kodiak It was a land rich in resources, but it was as inhospitable as Siberia and exceedingly distant from the capital at St. Petersburg. Colonization would take money and time, the former of which Russia lacked due to the costly Crimean War and the latter due to encroaching settlers from British Columbia. Another disastrous war could cost them the land without compensation, so the Tsar decided best to sell it now to a state so expansionist it could stymie the land-hungry British Empire: the United States.
A new story by Jeff ProvineInitial talks during the Buchanan presidency had ended in failure due to the distraction of the American Civil War. After the war ended, the Tsar ordered Eduard de Stoeckl, Russian minister to the US, to again approach America about buying. Secretary of State William H. Seward was an eager expansionist and quickly agreed, even though he would later have difficulty persuading the Senate to ratify the treaty. Before the two sat down to discuss details of the sale, a letter arrived from Russian Alaska asking that Kodiak Island be spared from the sale.
While much of Alaska remained populated only by the native Eskimo people, Russia had made attempts at colonizing their corner of America. In 1763, Stephan Glotov explored the island and found it suitable for the fur trade. In 1784, Grigory Shelikhov established the first permanent settlement there, which would later become a significant center of the fur trade. If Russia sold Alaska completely, the Tsar and his people would lose out on the business they had helped to build.
Stoeckl found himself in a difficult position. Seward still wanted to buy, but he seemed suspicious of the Russians holding their key island where the Russian tradesmen would have a leg-up on American settlers. Finally, after a hasty agreement that would have been voided without later Tsarist permission, Stoeckl offered Seward the Kuril Islands south of Kamchatka. They had been a point of contention between Russia and Japan, which formally established relations in 1855 with Treaty of Shimoda, part of which clarified the national border "between the islands of Etorofu and Uruppu. The whole of Etorofu shall belong to Japan; and the Kuril Islands, lying to the north of and including Uruppu, shall belong to Russia". Unlike the significant Sakhalin, these islands were primarily uninhabited, and an American buffer there would strengthen Russian standing in the North Pacific against Japanese expansion. Seward saw it as another chance for expansion and a closer diplomatic tie with the Japanese, who had opened their ports only a decade before during Admiral Perry's expedition.
Before and after the treaty being narrowly passed by the Senate, the national mood mocked the $7.2 million purchase as "Seward's Folly" or "Seward's Icebox" even with the price of about two cents per acre. More derision followed as Russia kept its dominance in the fur trade over the next years. However, with the gold rush of 1898, America secured its position in Alaska, and Kodiak lost out on much of its economic significance. Later, in 1905, many feared that holding the Kuril Islands would drag America into the Russo-Japanese War, but they proved key ground for President Theodore Roosevelt to begin peace talks. American defenses would be built on the cold, volcanic islands as Japan became more militaristic, and, after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the American troops there would be wiped out during bitter winter fighting in the first prong of the Japanese assault on Alaska after the spring thaw in 1942.
The most significant fallout of the seemingly minor amendment to a land-purchase a century before came as the Cold War grew hotter between America and the USSR. Both Kodiak and the Kuril Islands became military strongholds, and both sides attempted to place missiles in their bases there secretly. When U-2 spy planes discovered silos being constructed on Soviet Kodiak, President John F. Kennedy gave his famous "Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation" on October 22, 1962. He finished his enumeration of demands with, "Seventh and finally: I call upon Chairman Khrushchev to halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless, and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations".
Khrushchev refused to budge, sparking the three-week-long Alaska War in late 1962. American Marines stormed Kodiak Island, fighting with Soviet troops for days in bitter cold. The Russians counterattacked in the Kuril Islands, and the world sat on edge with everyone panicking at the thought of nuclear exchange. After both operations became successful invasions, desperate diplomacy cleared the mess, and agreement was reached that the two nations would officially exchange the islands.
Many historians note that it required involvement in three wars to fix a seemingly advantageous treaty that proved inexpedient. Commentators routinely call upon it as evidence for diplomats to be mindful of future strife as well as modern business.
In 1806, a declaration of guaranteed freedom of navigation upon the Mississippi River removed the final obstacle to the United States' diplomatic recognition of the Republic of Gloriana.
Western MagicOnly the misdirection of no less than three Heads of States could have driven events down this odd fork in the road of American development.
Despite his lofty aspirations of western expansion, the overriding imperative of US President Thomas Jefferson was the removal of European Military Power from the continent:
"Whether we remain in one confederacy, or form Atlantic and Mississippi confederacies, I believe not very important to the happiness of either part".
Upon reflection Jefferson had decided that the formation of a Mississippi confederacy was a highly desirable outcome because it enabled his Republican Government to dismantle the US Navy, scrap foreign embassies and remove all other undesirable legacies of the Hamiltonian System.
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had been ceded huge tracts of land from Spain but had lost interest in the Americas after a twenty-five thousand man force of crack French troops led by his brother-in-law Charles Leclerc had failed to put down the Haiti Insurrection. Mischievelously planning to create a maritime rival to challenge Great Britain, L'Empereur offered to sell the Louisiana Territy for the incredible price of only fifteen million dollars.
"This accession of territory affirms forever the power of the United States, and I have given England a maritime rival who sooner or later will humble her pride".
Even so Gallic pride would force him to withdraw the offer after he calculated that the deal represented a fire sale of only three cents an acre, even less than the pittance paid to the Indians for the purchase of Manhattan Island. Jefferson refused to raise the increased price because it would have destroyed his legacy. His fifteen year plan to retire the national debt was driven by profound regret over his "greatest blunder" during his service as Secretary of State in Washington's first term, mistakenly assisting Alexander Hamilton to consolidate government.
Thus the opportunity of a life time presented itself to Aaron Burr. Destined to rule, he founded the breakaway Republic of Gloriana after intrigue prevented him from governing in the United States.
Of course in adhering to his own near-sacred character of republican principles, Jefferson was also mindful of the very real challenges presented by the governance of an extended territory with an ethnic diversity of the Creole population. And ultimately Jefferson was happy to shift the problem to another American authority led by Burr, a perverse consolation prize for his defeat in the 1800 Presidential election.
Nevertheless history marched on as Napoleon had predicted and Jefferson himself had feared because an American Empire would indeed require an Imperial President. By the time Andrew Jackson put down border uprisings in nearby Florida, American expansionism was once again on the agenda. But Jefferson's heirs would look South, dreaming of a Tropical Empire.
"[There will be] distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand [the nation]... & cover the whole northern if not the southern continent" ~ Thomas Jefferson, on American expansion.
In 1870, rebels in Texas fight off efforts to rejoin the United States.
Texas becomes last confederate state readmitted to Union
By Robbie TaylorTexas had descended into anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger. Violence had marked the early months of Reconstruction. In 1866, the restoration of civilian government was prematurely declared.
But even with all of their Confederate allies back in the Union, the newly reformed Texas Republic remained independent and refused the amnesty offered by President Grant if they would just surrender and merge back with America. Nevertheless Texas eventually ran out of the ability to resist, and was conquered and absorbed back into the U.S. in 1886.
In 1981, U.S. President Edward M. Kennedy is shot and gravely wounded by a former mental patient named John Hinckley.
Scoop Jackson's Eight-hour PresidencyUnder the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, Vice-President Henry M. Jackson becomes acting President, until it is clear that Kennedy will recover. Afterward, comedians will have a field day with jokes about Jackson's 'eight-hour presidency.'
Following Hinckley's arrest, it will emerge that the would-be assassin has been stalking the President for months, and that his motive for attempting to kill Kennedy was not political but instead a desire to impress the actress Jodie Foster, with whom he has become obsessed since seeing her in the movie Taxi Driver.
An odd consequence of the shooting will be the cancellation of the TV superhero spoof The Greatest American Hero, whose lead character had been named Ralph Hinckley. Given Kennedy's near-assassination, on top of the successful assassination of his brothers President John F. Kennedy and Senator Robert F. Kennedy, the ABC television network will decide that retaining this series is bad for its public relations.
This post is an article from Eric Lipps's No Chappaquiddick thread.
In 1981, U.S. President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest by former mental patient John Hinckley and gravely wounded.
Although Reagan survives, a blood clot produced by his injury travels to his brain, causing a crippling stroke and forcing Vice-President George H. W. Bush to assume the duties of President under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment. Bush announces his decision to invoke the amendment after being informed of the medical complication by the President's doctors.
In his announcement, Bush asserts that he will refrain from a formal swearing-in and, although acting as president, will not accept the actual title. "I hold this office in trust for the man elected to it," he announced. "Although I am called upon to exercise its powers, I shall not claim the title until I may succeed to it by lawful means".
Mr. Bush declines to mention that one possible "lawful means" is the death of the stricken Reagan, whose survival remains in question for several months. Others, however, are not so reticent. In addition, there is speculation that Reagan may choose to resign, or may even be removed by Congress, although constitutional scholars question the legitimacy of the latter option absent impeachable offenses. In fact, however, neither occurs: Reagan proves remarkably resilient, and in September of 1982, after a final thorough examination by his physicians, he resumes the presidency amid a ceremony gaudier than his original inauguration.
Unknown to anyone at that time, however, is that Reagan was in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease at the time of his shooting, and that his injury has accelerated the progress of the condition. This will become tragically apparent only during President Reagan's second term, after he had won re-election by defeating former Vice-President Walter Mondale in all fifty states.
In 1989, President Jack F. Kemp introduces legislation to return the United States to the gold standard, something hen has long advocated as a means of curbing inflation. Congress is less than enthusiastic about the idea, because of fears it will prove an economic and political bonanza to gold producers, including apartheid South Africa while doing little or nothing to benefit the U.S. economy.
On this day in 1957, the injury bug bit Sandy Koufax again as he went down with a broken second finger on his right hand during the 3rd quarter of Game 1 of the 1957 NBA league championship series. The Celtics ended up losing that game in double overtime to the St. Louis Hawks 129-124 and would end up losing the series in six games.
In 1964, South Carolina senator J. Strom Thurmond emphatically denies rumors that he is considering switching parties to become a Republican. "Ah know the Democratic Party has taken a wrong turn in recent yeahs", Thurmond drawls. "But mah abandonin' the party of Jeffuhson won't put it back on the raht path. Ah intend to stay and fight fo' the principles upon which this pahty, and this nation, were established: fo' states? rahts an' limited gov'ment, and against the godless Communism which threatens us ovahseas and is reachin' into America as well".
Observers with long memories comment that Thurmond in fact had bolted the party once before, in his unsuccessful presidential run in 1948 on the States' Rights Party ticket, and speculate unkindly that his real objection to joining the GOP is that the Republicans are the party which abolished slavery.
In 2004, fascinated by the Titanian parasites they have dubbed the Projection Virii, Jacob and Livinia Sheridan assemble a super-cooled chamber to carry a load of P.V. and methane crabs back to earth. They wisely elect to keep this chamber outside of their ship - just in case.
In 1992, South African dictator Terreblanche places a puppet government in Botswana and begins transfering that country's wealth to his own. Although as ideologically rigid as his American ally President Ralph Shephard, Terreblanche is far more concerned with enriching himself than with driving out leftist influence on the African continent.
In 1981, a mere two months after taking office, President Edward Kennedy was shot by an assailant in Washington, D.C. The assassin, John Hinckley, Jr., was attempting to impress the actress Jodie Foster with the feat. The Kennedy Curse, which had claimed the lives of all 4 of Joseph Kennedy's sons, was invoked again as another member of the storied clan died a violent death.
In 1972, South Chilean forces launched a major offensive against the American-sponsored northern army at La Serena. The reactionaries had been dealing the Soviet States of America many blows, but had never won an outright engagement. La Serena, in spite of some initial success, was no exception, as American and North Chilean comrades halted their advance.
In 1952, the Baron von Todt and his lover are aboard a vessel in the middle of the Mediterranean when pirates attack the ship and seize it. Mikhail von Heflin was never one to shy away from a fight, and, with Velma Porter's help, he kills all of the pirates in a long, bloody night.
In 1867, Conspirators of the Speaker's Line working both sides of the deal transferred Alaska from Russia to the United States. They had discovered a rare element in the frozen territory that they planned to use to power a new vessel they were creating, which would make powered flight a reality.
In 1638, the first two Swedish ships, the "Fogel Grip" and the "Kalmar Nyckel" landed at the site of today's metropolis Kristinastad and established the first Swedish settlement in the New World. With 600 settlers following to strike roots soon after, the new colony was soon at loggerheads with the Dutch settlement of Nieuw Nederland.
This post was written by Dirk Puehl the highly recommended author of #onthisday #history Google+ posts.
New Sweden founded in AmericaEven though the Dutch did not take violent action while the Thirty Years' War raged in Europe and the mother country was threatened, matters changed after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. Nya Sverige (New Sweden) would have been a short-lived episode if King Charles XI had pursued his policy of strength in the eastern Baltic regions.
With profits from fur trade coming in and the old Swedish chancellor Oxenstierna having a focus on consolidating the economy, the new course of the Swedish Empire became quite obvious. Following victories over Denmark and control of the Kattegat and Skagerrak passages into the North Sea and the Atlantic, as well as an agreement of more or less exporting people from Poland and Lithuania - instead of warring on them - to tackle the colony's main problem, the lack of manpower, soon established a busy traffic between the north eastern American seaboard and Scandinavia. The Dutch saw their position in the Americas almost indefensible when war after war followed with the English in the second half of the 17th century and decided to sell their possessions rather than have them fall into English hands and ally with the Swedes.
Nya Sverige meanwhile had expanded to the Stora Sjoarna (Great Lakes) region in the west and drove a wedge between existing French and English settlements in the North and South of the continent, and the great colonial conflicts of the early 18th century between the three European major powers were already foreshadowed, when Swedish settlers drove away the French explorers Jolliet, Marquette and La Salle from the Mississippi River valley and founded the local capital of Gustavia (after the governor Gustav Johansson Prinz). The War of Spanish Succession finally brought hostilities to the Americas in earnest, with the French and Spanish on one and the Swedes and the English on the other, with the excellent Swedish troops making all the difference in the North of Louisiana, leaving France with the area south of the Arkansas River after the Peace of Utrecht.
Growing ideas of absolutistic rule in the late 17th and early 18th century in the Swedish Empire under Charles XI and Charles XII, colonial taxation and the competition with the English in North America marked the uneasy situation of Nya Sverige until the 1750s when the Amerikanska Kriget or American War determined the new development the continent was about to take.
In 1790, on this day tenth President of the United States John Tyler was born in Charles City County, Virginia.
Birth of President TylerOnly three years after the death of William Henry Harrison due to illness, he was killed in an accidental explosion that caused many superstitious Americans to believe the office of President had become cursed.
During a party aboard the USS Princeton (the first screw stream ship in the Navy), some 400 guests were treated to displays of modern technology, including the 12-inch cannon known as the Peacemaker. It had been fired twice successfully over co-designer John Ericsson's warning that the gun was not ready. The third firing, a tribute as they passed Washington's home at Mount Vernon, caused the cannon to explode. Tyler, who was eager to impress young Julia Gardiner of his virility despite being a 54-year-old widower, had hopped up the ladder onto the deck, just in time to catch shrapnel to his head. Julia's father, New York businessman David Gardiner, and Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur were also among the casualties in the worst peacetime explosion to that point.
Mourning for the disaster included curiosity at another unprecedented occurrence: the ascension of a President pro tempore of the Senate to the office of President of the United States. After the death of Harrison, Tyler had been the first Vice-President to assume the office, though many such as John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay thought that he was meant to fulfill a role rather than be a wholly new president. Despite being nicknamed "His Accidency", Tyler went about resigning from the Whig political party and launching his own economic policy. He vetoed bills for a National Bank repeatedly, causing his cabinet to resign in disgust. While Tyler had a few supporters, such as Daniel Webster, he fought with the Whigs so much that they initiated the first impeachment hearings against him, though it would ultimately be voted down. Tyler's greatest separation from the Whigs, however, was the potential annexation of the Republic of Texas. The matter had been raised before in 1837 with a Texas proposal that was declined by President Martin van Buren. Tyler had Secretary of State Upshur begin work on a treaty, but it remained incomplete at the time of their deaths. What Tyler had planned to be the great issue of the election of 1844 was a political afterthought.
A new story by Jeff ProvineAs President pro tempore of the Senate, North Carolina Whig Willie Person Mangum became the eleventh president of the United States. Mangum was something of a reversal of Tyler, having left the Democratic Party in 1834 after declaring himself a Whig. He left politics and reinvented his career, working as part of a failed Whig plot to nominate four men for president to block out Martin van Buren in 1836 before returning triumphantly to the Senate in 1840. When New Jersey Senator Samuel L. Southard resigned from the Senate in 1842 due to his failing health, Mangum came onto the track that would accidentally make him president. Where Tyler had broken with the Whigs, Mangum worked alongside party leader Henry Clay to institute as much of his American System as possible with the Whig majority in the Senate, though the Democrats controlled the House and resisted several proposed tariffs. A new National Bank was established to capitalize on the rebounding economy after the Panic of 1837, and numerous transportation improvement projects began. These projects would be the main issue of the election of 1844 when Henry Clay narrowly defeated Martin van Buren with the promise of extending the National Road to Oregon and clarifying American control there rather than joint-rule with Britain.
The issue of annexation arose again after the California Republic won its independence from Mexico in 1846 under men such as Mexican general Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo and John C. Fremont. The republic proposed annexation by the United States, but Henry Clay politely declined. Such an annexation might have sparked war with Mexico, who was already upset over American soldiers unofficially participating in the rebellion, seemingly a mirror to Texas. The move is believed to have cost Clay and the Whigs the election of 1848 that gave the White House to Democrat Lewis Cass despite the efforts of the Free Soil Party under Martin van Buren to limit slavery in the territories.
Settlers poured westward on improved roads (including many government-funded rail projects), giving rebirth to the question of slavery in federal territories. Popular sovereignty became the strategy for Kansas and Nebraska Territories, which turned into guerilla warfare as men committed to both sides fought to protect interests. Alongside this issue came the discovery of gold in the newly founded California Republic, which spawned a renewed call for Manifest Destiny. With the approval of Britain, the United States annexed California, prompting Mexico to declare war. The Republic of Texas came as an ally, winning many victories and expanding its territory in the resulting treaty in 1854, which also brought the Republic of Sonora to the US. Some suggested annexing Texas as well, but no formal proposal was made as abolitionists saw it as an extension of slavery and the general attitude of Texas (which had been independent for over a generation) felt best to stay independent.
In 1860, the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln caused the South to declare its independence, inviting Texas to join in a confederation, which it considered before declining and remaining neutral. The war was finished by 1864, and the question of slavery was answered in the United States, though it remained legal in Texas until the 1880s. Texas and the US continued diplomatic relations despite being on opposing sides of the French intervention in Mexico. Suggestions for annexation arose again in the 1890s with a new wave of expansionism, but conservative Texans valued independence while local businesses hoped to hold onto the growing oil industry there. Over the next century, Texans would continue to be friendly with Americans, even joining the Allies in the Second World War, though its production-based economy was especially crippled by the Great Depression. Today it stands as a close trade-partner with the United States, but still fiercely independent.
In 1592, the celebrated Elizabethan poet William Shakespeare assigned the blame for his acrimonously departure from the Lord Chamberlain's Men on the well-known playwright Robert Greene.
Upstart CrowIn a pamphlet published by Henry Chettle, Greene had openly accused the Upstart Crow of copying from the "Richard, Duke of York" which was a collaborative piece of work he had written with Marlowe. And sure enough "The Third Part of Henry VI" included the travestied line "Oh tiger's heart wrapt in a woman's hide" which Green directly referred to in his stinging attack on the player.
In fact, Green was a bitter, dying man but the controversy was enough to force Shakespeare to leave the capital and rejoin his family in Stratford-upon-Avon. There was a star danced, and under that was I bornBut fate intervened, and through a connection at court with Walter Raleigh, the Shakespeares were invited to join settlers setting sail for Virginia.
His career as a player, and wannabe writer/manager was over, he turned his attention to sonnet writing on themes such as the passage of time, love, beauty and mortality. He emerged as one of the new world's most famous poets. And the inspiration for his gifted son, Hamnet, who in 1615 authored the celebrated play "The Lady and the Dragon".
In 1461, in the midst of a snowstorm in the North of England, the Wars of the Roses would come to an end as the House of Lancaster reaffirmed itself to its royal position gained by the overthrow of Richard II.
House of Lancaster Victorious at Towton The matter settled civil wars that had plagued England for years with the growing dissent over the weak king Henry VI. The House of York under Richard Plantagenet, Third Duke of York, rose up in opposition to the nobles who held Henry's interest and easily swayed his opinions. Initially, York was successful, establishing an act by Parliament to make him and his progeny to succeed Henry upon his death. Henry's consort, Margaret of Anjou, fought back with a quickly raised army, and York was slain at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460. His son Edward took up the fight to defend his right, which would soon be taken from him by the might of Lancaster.
A new story by Jeff ProvineThe war continued until the fateful day in late March of the next year. The army under John de Mowbray, Third Duke of Norfolk, was late, making the Yorkists seem grossly outnumbered, but he managed to arrive shortly before the battle began. Lord Fauconberg offered a strategy of arranging his archers to fire with the wind, thus outside of the range of the Lancasterian arrows, but a fierce north wind came up quickly, bringing snow with it. Some commanders on both sides considered postponing the battle, but the arrival of Norfolk's troops prompted a quick fight before the snow became worse.
The two armies drew up ranks on the plateau between Saxton and Towton, Lancaster using the marshes and valley as protection for its flanks. The narrow space meant that Lancaster would not be able to use its numerical advantage at once, seemingly a disadvantage that would actually hand them the battle. After the initial attack, fighting continued indecisively for hours, despite the charge of mounted spearmen from the Castle Hill Wood into the Yorkist flank. Edward had joined the battle himself to stop the charge, which bolstered his men's confidence. However, after some seven to ten hours, the exhausted Yorkists finally began to falter while Lancaster continued to bring up fresh troops who had been waiting behind the front line for space to attack.
When the Yorkists broke, the battle became a slaughter. Snow and weariness slowed their escape, and as many perished from the cold and wet terrain as did by the Lancaster sword. Edward himself was killed in battle, most likely mistakenly since his body was not discovered until two days later. With Henry VI firmly upon the throne again despite his bouts with insanity, Margaret of Anjou and her allies quickly began purifying the parliament of disloyal nobles. Lancaster would hold firmly for some time, but their harsh methods would eventually be their undoing.
The reign of Henry's son Edward IV had proven as weak as his father's with Edward being coddled or bullied by his mother and her council. Upon Margaret's death in 1482, Richard Plantagenet, who had been only nine at the time of his brother Edward's death, acted out after years of careful plotting and intrigue. He had played a fool during much of his youth, later writing of inspiration from Claudius, and maintained a hold on a little of his father's land through Margaret's purges. Gathering his own allies among the ambitious and disenfranchised of England, he made his greatest gain in power by taking in Henry Tudor, a distant relative of Lancaster who had no chance at royal power otherwise. The uprising became an overall revolution, and Richard swiftly defeated the forces of Edward IV by 1485. Tudor was rewarded with seized Lancasterian lands, and his daughter Margaret married Richard's son Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales, who would become Edward V.
The House of York became dominant in England and swallowed up much of the latent power of the House of Lancaster. With its internal affairs in order, the country turned to warfare with other European powers, particularly Spain and Portugal, which grew wealthy on gold taken from the New World. England would find the Protestant movement favorable and joined with the Empire of Sweden, the Dutch Republic, and many of the northern German states. War tore apart the British Isles as Catholic Scotland and Ireland rebelled, though the advantaged English would eventually affirm their domination in war and intrigue that would have made proud the much applauded King Richard III, about whom the biographer Shakespeare wrote glowingly.
In 2009, on this day the embattled Prime Minister of Israel, Tzipora Livni1 (pictured) requested that the Canadian Government withdraw support for the Annapolis Process which had been launched at a Middle East peace conference held on November 27, 2007. The conference at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, United States established a framework for addressing the Israeli-Palestinian conflict which had been building up for forty years since the inception of a two-state solution.
Peace for LandA joint statement was issued by all parties. Subsequently, nine Canadians provided assistance for the Palestinian State to take greater responsibility for security matters, including the training of six thousand members of the national security force and the two-thousand strong presidential guard.
Trouble was roadblocks and security walls had made normal civilian and economic life extremely difficult for Israelis. An overwhelming majority considered it was an historic mistake for the founding fathers to accept the logic of the UN decision in 1947. And contrary to the Zionist doctrine propounded by radicals such as David Ben-Gurion, the partition signed by the Chairman of the Jewish National Council Golda Meir created not just one but two states in the old Ottoman and British Mandate. Meir argued persuasively that a forced exodus of Palestinians would have been "dreadful" likening a Zionist occupation to what had befallen the Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe2. Yet the reality was that the threat of Arab invasion forced the Jewish National Council to accept partition. And truth be told, the threat of Arab invasion had never really gone away.
Even today Iran espouses a similiar view but from a radically different perspective. When its leaders talk of Israel's "occupation," they are not talking about what happened in 1947 and after, but of Israel's very existence and presence in the region. When they talk of "resisting the Zionist entity" and of their support for Hamas and Hezbollah, they are referring to a long-term vision of never-ending struggle.
Israel's challenge is that Hamas and Hezbollah do not feel bound by the same rules of war and engagement as Israel. Rocket launchers are placed on the rooftops of schools and apartment buildings; military headquarters are buried beneath hospitals. Hardliners in the Knesset assert that Stephen Harper's Government in Ottawa can no longer be "pro-Israel" and "pro-Arab".
And the extremist Likud Party led by the ultra-right wing maverick Binjamin Netanyahu have gone further, proposing military incursions into the West Bank and Gaza City. No stranger to controversy, Neyanyahu was recently interviewed by journalist Bob Rae of the Toronto Star in which he recounted a story about two Israelis meeting in the street.
"How are things?"
"In a word, 'good.'
In two words, 'not good.' "
In 1818, the last organized independentista force in Spanish Mexico surrenders, ending a rebellion which had begun in 1810 and which had been encouraged by expatriate survivors of the rebellion in the British colonies four decades earlier, including the notorious agitators John Adams, now living in exile in Cuba, and Thomas Jefferson, currently residing in Versailles.
To the frustration of the British authorities, who have had warrants against Adams and Jefferson since the days of the American rebellion in the mid-1770s, neither man will be punished for his role in the uprising. The brilliant and cultured Jefferson has become a favorite at the court of the Napoleon despite his political agitation, and he is able to persuade the Emperor to order his brother Joseph Bonaparte, who has served as the puppet ruler of Spain since 1810, to keep the Cuban colonial administration from acting against Adams.
Jefferson's continued efforts at political subversion in the name of 'liberty' will, however, cost him following the death of Napoleon and the crowning of his son ten-year-old son Napoleon Francois Joseph Charles Bonaparte, who will reign in name only for years under the regency of Klemens von Metternich, the first Napoleon's feared Prime Minister. Metternich will see to it that the privileges and wealth Jefferson had enjoyed are gradually stripped away, so that by the time of his death in 1826 he will be broke and hounded by creditors.
In 2004, experiments on the methane crabs of Titan show the Sheridans that the tiny organisms that caused hallucinations on earth are parasites living on the crabs. In their natural environment, they are fairly harmless, but when heated to earth's temperatures, they become agitated and start projecting images of crabs around them.
In 1997, British General Peter de la Billiere captured New York City. With the collapse of the Mexican front, and Asian forces advancing from the west coast, the Constitutionalist government of President Ralph Shephard looked doomed to defeat, and he began toying with the idea of launching a nuclear strike against his enemies.
In 1848, Niagara Falls stops flowing temporarily as Mlosh contractor Kent'O'Lihay builds the famous Niagara Dam in order to capture hydroelectric power from the rushing river. The falls and the artistic dam are one of the many wonders tourists flock to see in the North American Confederation.
In 1058, Frederik van Lotharingen, a bishop of the Roman branch of the British Catholic Church, died in Belgium. During the first century of the Holy British Empire, many leaders of the old Roman church had been active in seeking to take back leadership from London, but with van Lotharingen's death, the Roman church's position was settled for a few centuries.
In 1951, in the middle of the White Scare, scientists Rita and Michael Oppenheimer are convicted of funneling nucear secrets to the European monarchies, and sentenced to death for treason. In spite of numerous pleas from scientists around the country, the Soviet States of America felt that an example had to be made of the Oppenheimers; tragically, after the end of the Cold War, it was revealed that the Oppenheimers had never been spies for Europe.
In 1972, Bruce Lee left the set of Kung Fu following disagreements with Executive Producer Jerry Thorpe over the lead role of Kwai Chang Caine. Lee was replaced by the American actor David Carradine who shared the same vision as Thorpe, indirectly causing the series to bomb through lack of authenticity. As Master Kahn would say "To suppress a truth, is to give it force beyond endurance".
In 1939, Hollywood stars Bill Gabe and Jane Peters married during the filming of Gabe's blockbuster Gone With The Wind. Their happy marriage ended 3 years later when Peters' plane crashed during a War Bond drive. Out of grief for her, Gabe joined the Army Air Corps and was shot down over Europe in 1944.
In 1879, the vastly outnumbered troops under the command of Henry Evelyn Wood are slaughtered by Zulu King Cetshwayo's warriors at Kambula. Heartened by the win and with British guns from the victory, Cetshwayo managed to carve Zululand out of the British Empire, beginning Britain's long expulsion from Africa by native nations.
In 12-0-19-14-12, the Oueztecan Empire annexed the Delaware of the northeastern coast. A small and peaceful people, the Delaware brought in wonderful fishing from the northeast, and inspired the Empire to seek annexation or conquest of other nations in that region.
It is 1334 BC, and Pharaoh Akhenaten has just died without a son.
Happy Endings Part 19
Pharoah MosesHe is succeeded by Prince Moses, his sister's adopted child. Since Moses enthusiastically shared Akhenaten's new religious views,which replaced the old polytheism with a belief in Aten the One Sun God, the late Pharaoh had chosen his nephew for the throne.
The new Pharaoh Moses-aten continued to worship Aten while requiring his countrymen to do the same. Since the Hebrew slaves also worshipped one God, Moses set them free, knowing that they would be his most enthusiastic supporters. To make things simpler for these simple folks, he condensed the hundreds of Egyptian commandments down to a list of Ten.
And that is why the Faith of Aten is still followed throughout all of Egypt, and indeed the entire Middle East.
In 1895, on this day the thirty-seventh Vice President of the United States Christian Archibald Herter was born in Paris, France.
Birth of VP HerterHe previously served as fifth-ninth governor of Massachusetts from 1953 to 1957. During this controversial term of office, he famously appointed Republican candidate Henry Cabot Lodge to the Senate after a Democrat, thirty-seven year old John F. Kennedy was tragically killed by a Urinary track-infection surgery in October of 1954.
Of course President Eisenhowever might secretly have wished that such a malady would strike his hateful Vice President Richard M. Nixon. But instead as his own re-election neared, it became clear to him and his staffers that the President's fragile health was sufficiently weak as to seriously risk Nixon being ushered into office through succession. He offered Nixon his choice of cabinet post and replaced him on the ticket with Herter. Forced to choose, Nixon selected Defence, and alongside the CIA set about organizing the Bay of Pigs Invasion that would overthrow the Communist Regime in Cuba.
By 1854, as the nineteenth century showed the continued waning of the Ottoman Empire, the "Eastern Question" asked what to do with the "Sick Man of Europe". In its heyday, the empire ruled from the ancient Byzantine capital of Constantinople over lands stretching from the Balkans to Mesopotamia across North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula.
March 28, 1854 - France and Britain join Eastern WarWhile the Ottomans seemed to maintain eternal war with Austria and Russia over influence in the Balkans, nations such as Spain and France pushed back its control to Tunisia. In 1832, the Greeks won their independence with aid from France, the United Kingdom, and, especially, Russia. The Ottomans faced further revolts from the Janissaries as well as a rebellion by Muhammad Ali, the Wali of Egypt. In the 1830s, Ali's wars secured independence for Egypt and Sudan and then marched outward, seizing Syria and Arabia. Ali was finally defeated by military action backing up the Convention of London, where the major powers of Europe agreed to make him hereditary ruler of Egypt in exchange for his conquered lands.
Another challenge to the Ottomans came when Napoleon III, newly upon the throne of France, gave a show of force and demanded to be made the defender of Christian citizens in empire. The Ottomans refused, citing the 1774 Treaty of Kücük Kaynarca with Russia, which named the Tsar the defender of Orthodox Christians, a position which had been used to step in on affairs involving Greece. Eventually the Ottomans caved to Napoleon's demands, inciting Nicholas I of Russia to move troops to the border on the Danube. When the sultan rejected (at Britain's advice) a new treaty granting Russia control of Orthodox as France had authority over Catholic Christianity, Nicholas invaded the Ottomans' Danubian provinces. After having ruled Russia for nearly thirty years, serving as the "Policeman of Europe" and aiding in the suppression of the Revolutions of 1848, Nicholas felt that he had earned the conquest.
The rest of Europe, however, convened at Vienna, hoping to find a diplomatic solution that did not contribute to the expansion of Russian power. On the surface, Nicholas agreed with their new treaty, but he began maneuvers under the table toward France, promising them North Africa in exchange for bringing down the Ottoman Empire. When the Sultan refused to agree to the ambiguous treaty set forth at Vienna, France marched out and joined the Russian cause. The other nations were shocked but realized that the time had come to solve the Eastern Question. Austria hurried to join the Russian alliance and secure influence on lands soon to be liberated in the Balkans. Prussia, with nothing to gain, maintained its neutrality. Britain alone stood alongside the Ottomans, attempting to maintain status quo in the Middle East.A new article by Jeff Provine
The Eastern War dragged on for three years, Alexander II succeeding his father in 1855. Despite the clear military advantage of the Franco-Russo-Austrian alliance, they were beleaguered by antiquated leadership. French forces liberated Egypt and then became cut off by British naval superiority in the Mediterranean. The British were able to shell French fortifications from sea, but could make no headway and faced humiliations such as the Charge of the Light Brigade at the Battle of Tunis. In the Balkans, trains and telegraphy proved effective, but the masses of troops in movement brought unprecedented levels of disease. Photography enabled an explosion of war-journalism, which ultimately contributed to the disgust of the public. Britain suffered a "snowball riot" on January 21, 1855, when protesters threw snowballs and eventually had to be quelled by soldiers.
Due to the unpopularity of the war, Britain began discussing peace through Prussia as an arbiter for peace in 1856. The Ottoman Empire was shrunk to Asia Minor, and its many provinces became nation-states while Palestine was granted a special international protectorate status to preserve rights to Catholicism and Orthodoxy there. No sooner had the diplomats signed the documents than the industrialists swarmed into the region, attempting to dominate new markets. France with its heavy influence in Egypt had a head start in the Middle East and began construction on the lucrative Suez Canal as soon as the war was over. Britain reinforced relations with Persia as a buffer for its colonies in India. In the Balkans, the Austrians and Russians attempted to exert control over the new nations. When the Austro-Prussian War began in 1866, Russia and Italy contributed, tearing the empire apart much as had been done to the Ottomans. Italy affirmed itself with the Third War of Unification adding Venice, and Prussia formed a German Empire out of its German Confederation, seizing extensive lands from the fallen Austrians.
For two generations, enormous empires sprawled over Europe. France and Britain competed abroad while Germany and Russia divided Eastern Europe. New major world powers arose as Japan defeated Russia in the Pacific, and the United States made a tour of its Great White Fleet. The empires came to battle after the assassination of German Crown Prince William in 1914 by a secret society bent on ending exterior influence in the Balkans while he was touring Sarajevo. Germany invaded Serbia, Russia moved in to protect it, prompting its ally France to move on Germany. Britain came in as an ally against France, spreading the war over the globe. Eventually Germany defeated Russia, sparking a civil war that would lead to a new Communist regime, ideas which spread to France's many lost colonies and to France itself, creating a Second World which came into an ideological Cold War with the First.
In 1979, a broken cooling valve leads to the worst disaster in American history.
Three Mile IslandThe valve failed to let cooling water through at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania, and the plant went into a severe meltdown, releasing radiation across the entire northeastern US and southeastern Canada. Thousands died from radiation poisoning, and thousands more became ill. The wind currents even brought the radiation to Washington DC, where dozens of members of Congress were killed, as well as President Carter. the worst disaster in American history.
Vice President Mondale (pictured), assuming the presidency, ordered an evacuation of the eastern seaboard. Canada went through similar struggles, with a huge chunk of its southeastern region bordering America becoming uninhabitable. Both countries soured on nuclear power after this, and Canada outlawed the alternate energy source, turning to solar and wind power to take its place. America took a downturn as it struggled to come back from this disaster. For the next few years, the federal government met in Kansas and struggled to deal with the millions of refugees from the east. Compared to this, the Great Depression was a minor socio-economic blip - President Mondale suspended elections and called for martial law in order to hold the nation together. the worst disaster in American history.
He ran the nation as a virtual dictator for the next 8 years, until the radiation levels dropped enough in the east to where it could be repopulated. The area around Three Mile Island is still uninhabitable, but portions of Pennsylvania were recovered, and life slowly returned to normal in America.
In 517 AD, on this day a Roman fleet sailed up the Severn and anchoured at Glaudium (aka Gloucester, a major route into Britain was by sea from the mediterranean and terminating at the Severn).
Battle of Camlann, Reboot Part #2 by Ed & Richard RoperRoman officers arrived at Cirinium; "Hail Caesar, Hail caesar, Hail Caesar".
Artorius was appointed Caesar of Britain by the East Roman Emperor. This action was the beginning of the restoration of the Western Empire, the great project of the emperor.
Arthur later retired to Avalon (aka Glasonbury Hill) - and his son rules as caesar and co-king of the Angles (an article on the Vortigern Studies site names him and says he returned as co-king of the Angles when they migrated as a nation).
This article is a continuation of Part 1.
In 1775, the ongoing American protests against British colonial rule escalated into armed rebellion as citizens of the town of Concord, Massachusetts exchanged gunfire with a detachment of British soldiers sent to arrest the leader of the local Brotherhood of Liberty chapter; when the skirmish ended just twelve minutes later three Americans, six British, and a Quebecois emigrant farmer were dead.
Double Jeopardy Part 7
Battle of ConcordThe Battle of Concord, as the engagement would later be known, marked the beginning of the American Revolution-- a war that would end over four years later with the United States becoming independent from Britain.
The British defeat in the Revolution marked a major turning point in the Crown's relations with its former subjects on American soil; forced to deal with the newly sovereign nation as an equal rather than simply as one of its dependents, Britain strived in the post-Revolutionary War era to create more cordial ties with America. Those efforts would turn out to be invaluable to the interests of both countries when another Anglo-French war erupted in the early 19th century.
In 1969, on this day the seventeenth Confederate President Dwight D. Eisenhower died of congestive heart failure. He was seventy-eight years old and had suffered health issues for over a decade.
17th Confederate President
March 4, 1951 - 1957Born in Texas during the administration of P.G.T Beauregard, "Ike" never moved to Kansas as in our time line. Instead, he grew up in Oklahoma.
Since West Point Military Academy is deep into Union territory, Eisenhower graduated from the premier military school in the CS - Virginia Military Institute. From there he would go on to become a General of the Army (5-star) in leading the CS forces in Europe during the Second World War. A new article from the "Two Americas" thread on Althistory WikiaAs a result of operations in the closing days of that war, the CS was able to "rescue" German rocket scientists who would later help the North American Allies (CS-US-Canada) in their efforts in what became known as the "Space Race" with the USSR.
As president, he pushed for troops to be sent to help the UN hold on to South Korea, but the CS Congress would not go along. When the US president asked for assistance in the mounting tensions in French Indochina, again, the CS Congress stood in the way. Both Korea and Vietnam would fall to the Communists.
In 1968, on this day Wilhelm Schoemann heard a knock on the door.
Protocols of the Elders of Zion by Robert A. TaylorThe knock on the door had that authoritative, threatening sound that could only have been perfected through years of using it to intimidate people. Wilhelm struggled up from his recliner, set down the paper he had been laboring through, (it was filled with more articles on how the verdammt Arabs were raising the price of gas, again, and it would probably be at least a dollar a gallon, now), and shuffled to the door. He was not a quick man, these days. The arthritis that had crippled his father was starting to creep over him, and he resented having to challenge it.
The knock was repeated.
Part one of the novel can be downloaded here and continues as a thread on this site.
On this day in 1916, U.S. federal authorities arrested two German agents in Trenton, New Jersey on suspicion of sabotage.
Under question the agents were discovered to have been plotting to bomb the Black Tom Island munitions factory near Jersey City; this discovery further soured already acrimonious U.S.-German diplomatic relations and pushed the United States and Germany one step closer to the brink of war. America would finally step over the brink four months later with the disclosure of the infamous Zimmerman telegram.
On this day in 1983, Rick Steamboat defeated NWA world heavyweight champion Roddy Piper in a non-title match on WCW. The victory made Steamboat the number one contender for the belt and set up a title match between the two former tag team partners the following week.
In 1969, former President Dwight D. Eisenhower dies of congestive heart failure at Walter Reed Army Hospital. He is 78 years old.
For the past sixteen years, Eisenhower has been the subject of conspiracy theories centering on his refusal to condemn President Harry S Truman's January 19, 1953 pardon of accused Soviet spy and convicted perjurer Alger Hiss.
In 1958, Robert Welch, founder of the far-right John Birch Society, had raised eyebrows and tempers by citing his actions regarding the Hiss pardon as proof that then-President Eisenhower was himself a Soviet agent under the 'control' of his brother Milton Eisenhower, a charge even Wisconsin Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy, still riding the wave of power which had enabled him to successfully defy the Army in public hearings in 1953, did not quite dare to endorse.
In 1837, word of the fall of Bangor and of other British advances in Maine reaches Washington just as the Senate, after weeks of infighting, is preparing to cast its vote for President. At once, partisans of Acting President Jackson raise the cry not to change presidents in the middle of what is beginning to look like a mortal threat to the Union.
Upon receiving the news, Acting President Jackson once more summons Ambassador Fox. We now see, it appears, Jackson says to the diplomat, what course of action your government thinks best in dealing with our protests as to their military incursion upon United States soil.
Perhaps, sir, you believed that I was not in earnest when I warned that refusal to remove these troops would mean war between our nations. I assure you now, any such belief was mistaken. Or perhaps you imagined that, were it to come to war, Britain would inevitably be the victor. One need only direct one?s attention to the history of relations between us to make clear that this, too, is mistaken.
Your government has attempted to take advantage of the present political disputes of this nation to launch a military assault upon us, in violation of all treaties between our nations. Accordingly, I advise you now that I shall request of Congress, before another day has passed, a formal declaration that a state of war exists between the British Empire and the United States of America, and that I anticipate with confidence that whatever their other disagreements they shall speedily provide that declaration.
I therefore request and require that you remove yourself and your staff and dependents from the soil of the United States within the next twenty-four hours. You are to consider that you, and they, are personae non gratae in this nation as of this moment.
Ambassador Fox does not waste time on bluster. He merely replies, As you wish, sir, and turns to go. He and the rest of the personnel of the Washington embassy will depart by ship the following morning, after burning all embassy papers they will be unable to take with them. It is the beginning of the third, and the bloodiest, war between Britain and the United States.
In 1941, Italian forces of the Greater Zionist Resistance are attacked by the British allies of the German Underground. Although the main British goal is simply to gain greater access to the Mediterannean, they eventually come under complete control of the German Reich.
In 2008, British Airways sincerely apologised to customers affected by the bungled opening of Heathrow's Terminal Five Airport.
The day had started well enough when a flight from Hong Kong had arrived eight minutes early. However, problems with car parking, baggage handling and check-in created huge delays mimicked the promise of a relaxed queue-free passenger experience. Passengers on the fifty minute flight from Frankfurt waited over ninety minutes for their baggage, and three flights departed with no luggage at all.
A passenger on the first flight was Chris Patten, the outgoing Governor of Hong Kong. Patten commented sympathetically that in July 1998 such problems had beset the first weeks of operation of the multi-billion dollar airport at Chek Lap Kok. Beset by problems, flights were also delayed and baggage lost. The cargo handling system also broke down, causing severe disruption to local businesses which rely heavily on air freight.
In 2008, in his bid for a non-consecutive third term as President, Bill Clinton spoke of his foreign policy experience on the campaign trail in Pennsylvania. He recalled landing at an airport in Bosnia twelve years ago. Seeing a fire burning on the hill-side, he turned to his late wife Hillary. In a dramatic gender reversal of the Dallas assassination, he watched in horror as the First Lady was shot by a sniper. The recollection of 'dodging bullets' prompted a mixed response from prospective voters where the next primary election was held on April 22. The former President was also accused of overstating his involvement in the peace process in the former Yugoslavia, the catalist for which was of course the senseless murder of America's First Lady.
In 1970, Sam Green released the short documentary film Lot 63, Grave C, (Mick Jagger's gravesite). More light was shed upon the lead singer's last day and the questions that remain from the Rolling Stone's performance of Sympathy for the Devil at the Altamont Free Concert in Northern California. On December 6th 1969 a possessed fan, Meredith Hunter, shot Mick Jagger dead and was himself killed when a Hells Angel stabbed him to death. For the first time it was revealed that the Angels - who had been acting as security guards - had strongly advised the band against the performance. They correctly reasoned that the Father would object to the implied disrespect of the song and therefore could not offer guarantees for their personal safety.
In 2004, the Sheridan's Titanian expedition reaches its goal. Saturn's largest moon is fascinating, and the married scientists record everything that they are doing. After finding a nesting site for the methane crabs, they scoop up several and assemble a laboratory outside of their ship to examine them.
In 1990, the Canadian Civil War ended with the Nationalists led by Eileen Pressler in control of the northern nation. Although fellow traveler President Ralph Shephard had supported her forces during the war, Pressler refused to lend assistance to America during its war in the western hemisphere, maintaining a strict neutrality in the coming conflict.
© Today in Alternate History, 2013-. All characters appearing in this work are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental.