A Daily Updating Blog of Important Events In History That Never Occurred Today.
Imagine what would be, if history had occurred a bit differently. Who says it didn't, somewhere? These fictional news items explore that possibility. Written by Alternate Historian

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Todayinah EditorEditor says, for subscription users please follow us on Twitter, Facebook, Disqus or Google Plus. History runs along a different line in Today In Alternate History, a site which chronicles "important events in history that never occurred today". Possibilities such as America becoming a Marxist superpower, aliens influencing human history in the 18th century and Teddy Roosevelt winning his 3rd term as president abound in this interesting fictional blog.


 Editor's Pick
More than three decades after his birth was heralded by the arrival of the asteroid of David that destroyed the city of Rome, Joshua Ben Jesse was finally recognised as the Messiah by his fellow Jews.3rd of Tishrei, 3794 - "Jesus" Recognised as the Messiah by JewsIn 1791 on this fateful day the House of Representatives accepted the change made to the Second Amendment by the Senate to wit "the right to bear arms [in the service of the State militia]". The original wording had of course been more ambiguous about gun ownership for the purpose of self-defence by private citizens or indeed the ad-hoc formation of citizenry into local militia "A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed"."Second Amendment" is repealedIn 783 AUC on this day <a href=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicarii>radical Judean sicarii</a> (pictured) ambush the Roman legionnaires and drag the good Rabbi Joshua away from Calvary despite his pleas that they should put up their swords in their scabbards."Jesus" saved from the Cross
In 1912 on-board the British Steamship SS Californian at a quarter after midnight, twenty-year old Cyril Furmstone Evans became the first wireless telegraphy operator in history to receive an SOS signal transmitted in Morse Code."RMS Titanic" Rescued by Modern TechnologyIn 2012 on this day failed GOP President candidate Mitt Romney announced the formation of a permanent, political action super-committee of elite donors. "Romney Group" formed on donor conference callIn 1861 on this day Union President Abraham Lincoln received an urgent request for reinforcements from Alexander Hamilton III the Governor of the <a href=http://www.todayinah.co.uk/index.php?story=39547-Y>Sugar State</a>."Sugar State #2": ACW engulfs the Islands
In 1933 the Nazi Party put in a desperately weak performance at the Lippe-Detmold state election due almost entirely to the active opposition of Gustav Streseman."Gustav Streseman" unwittingly involved in the Plot Against GermanyIn 1916 on this day Private <a href=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Man%27s_Land_(Eric_Bogle_song)#Who_was_.22Willie_McBride.3F.22>Willie McBride</a>, a nineteen year old conscript in the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, was shot dead at dawn for refusing his superiors orders to fight during the <a href=http://www.todayinah.co.uk/index.php?story=39806-Z15>Second Christmas Truce</a>.<font color=red size=-2>Watch the Green Fields of France</font> <a target=_blank href=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5GxLOenKHjE><img src=http://i.l.cnn.net/cnn/.element/img/2.0/global/icons/video_icon.gif border=0></a>"Willie McBride" executed during Christmas TruceIn 1946 on this day Baruch Plan Determines Americans will give up The Bomb. "Baruch Plan" Determines Americans will give up The Bomb
In 1919 after a humiliating outcry condemning the use of paramilitary soldiers, President Friedrich Ebert was forced to step down and the united workers of Germany created a new, socialist government. It was another phase in what would be a tumultuous decade for what had been the proud and powerful German Empire. "Spartacist Uprising" Overthrows Weimar RepublicIn 2014 an amateurish security breach at a secret military base threatened to usher in the long-dreaded Vampire Apocalypse."Dark Gift" of ImmortalityIt is November 1991 and the 74-year-old Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich Romanov, Head of the Russian Imperial Family, is invited to visit St. Petersburg by Mayor Anatoly Sobchak. The Soviet Union is collapsing, and the Grand Duke goes there hoping to regain the Russian throne. Realizing that the Russian people are not about to oblige him, he returns home to Madrid."A Czar is Born": Romanov Restoration in 1991


September 15

More than three decades after his birth was heralded by the arrival of the asteroid of David that destroyed the city of Rome, Joshua Ben Jesse was finally recognised as the Messiah by his fellow Jews.

3rd of Tishrei, 3794 - Jesus Recognised as the Messiah by JewsOf course his lineage was impeccably correct for him to be anointed King Moshiach of Israel (even if his biological parentage had at first been contested) because "[the] Scriptures say that the Messiah will come from the family of David. And they say that he will come from Bethlehem, the town where David lived" ~ John 7:42

Having travelled the land as a Rabbhi, his teachings had won over all but the most Orthodox of Jews. However the fierce resistance from Pharisees and Sadducees was only finally overcome by the intervention of Nicodemus ben Gurion, a wealthy and popular holy man who had his own miraculous powers.

Author's Note: in authoring this article we have re-purposed content from Alternate History 1, Alternate History 2, Alternate History 3, Alternate History 4 and Wikipedia.

In 1950, General Patton's moment of brilliance at Inchon was quickly overshadowed by a sarcastic remark from Doug MacArthur that George wholeheartedly agreed with. An installement from the Victory Disease thread.

George Marshall dispels the Victory Disease Part 4Because notwithstanding General Marshall's meticulous planning, the leap-frog assault into enemy territory was a bold stroke of strategic brilliance that had been conspicuously absent from the slow paced advance into Germany five years earlier. Instead, after the disaster of Operation Market Garden there had been no further attempts to force an acceleration of the European war. Not that Patton was present anyway; he had been withdrawn from the European theatre over fears that he might ignite a Third World War even before the Second had finished. Ironically, having been sent to the Far East to join Doug MacArthur, he was now engaged in a regional conflict that might well escalate into World War Three.

Of course Marshall's caution approach might have been more valued down the track had he accepted the position of Secretary of State when it was offered by President Truman. Instead, the dialogue with the Chinese was bungled and the result was their impending intervention on the Korean Peninsula. We can of course never know whether Marshall, had he been in Washington in January 1945, would have even been consulted over the request from Chinese Communists in Yan'an to send a diplomatic team to the White House. But Roosevelt had refused, the Communists won out and the US soon lost China altogether.

In 1857, on this day the ninth Chief Justice of the United States William H. Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Ninth US Chief Justice William H. TaftBorn into a powerful family, his paternal grandfather was Peter Rawson Taft, a descendant of Robert Taft I, the first Taft in America, who settled in Colonial Mendon and later Uxbridge Massachusetts. Alphonso Taft went to Cincinnati in 1839 to open a law practice, and was a prominent Republican who served as Secretary of War and Attorney General under President Ulysses S. Grant.

He studied at Yale and naturally entered the law profession. After admission to the Ohio bar, Taft was appointed Assistant Prosecutor of Hamilton County, Ohio. William was appointed to serve on the Superior Court of Cincinnati in 1887. Three years later, Taft was appointed Solicitor General of the United States and in 1891 a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.

In 1900, President William McKinley appointed Taft Governor-General of the Philippines. Despite his great reluctance to vacate this position, he was persuaded to accepted a Supreme Court Nomination in 1903 by McKinley's successor, Theodore Roosevelt. Although popular on the islands, he was never really cut out for popular politics, and his brief diversion into executive office was at a premature end. After seven years service on the bench, Melville Fuller passed away. And so in 1910, President Elihu Root appointed him Chief Justice a position he served in with great distinction for two decades. After his death in 1934, his eldest son Robert Alphonso Taft would fulfill his leadership ambitions by becoming elected President of the United States in 1948.

In 1857, on this day two-term US President William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Two-Term President William Howard TaftDuring 1904 President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him Secretary of War in an effort to groom Taft, then his close political ally, into his handpicked presidential successor. He assumed a prominent role in problem solving, assuming on some occasions the role of acting Secretary of State, while declining repeated offers from Roosevelt to serve on the Supreme Court.

He received the nomination for president in 1908 and won the November election. But once in office, he soon lost the support of Roosevelt who then decided to run for a third term and challenge Taft in 1912. However TR failed to get the GOP nomination again and formed his own party. But while campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on October 14 TR was shot and killed by a saloonkeeper named John Flammang Schrank. This caused major constitutional problems because it was too late to remove Roosevelt from the ballot; nevertheless, he did not, as expected, steal the votes that would have denied Taft his re-election. Of course the Democrat Candidate Woodrow Wilson would have stood an excellent chance, but for the exposure of his affair with a socialite Mary Hulbert Peck. And so at the outset of the Great War, America's President had been voted into office by two just people, John Flammang Schrank and Mrs Peck.

In 1789, on this day the United States Department of State was established (formerly known as the "Department of Foreign Affairs"). John Adams of Massachusetts would be appointed as the very first US Secretary of State.

John Adams appointed US Secretary of StateThe returning Ambassasor to France, Thomas Jefferson, had been the preferred candidate, being a master of high-mind (perhaps even elliptic) language. But unfortunately an exploratory meeting with George Washington had exposed some sharp differences of opinion on the role of the Federal Government. Adams was offered the position, and to geographically balance the presidential ticket, an alternate New Englander, Henry Knox became VP instead. Which was just as well, because when the nature of the VP role became clear, Adams realized that exclusion from cabinet discussion would have been unbearable. He was after all, a mile-a-minute talker whose favourite form of conversation was an argument.

Eight years later Adams moved on to the Supreme Court where he served with great distinction for two decades. Meanwhile, Knox succeeded Washington, and with Alexander Hamilton as de facto Prime Minister, declared war on France in 1798 and captured Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Cuba.

In 445, on this day the life of Buda (aka Bleda) the Hunnish King was saved by the timely intervention of his companion, the Moorish dwarf Zerco (pictured).

The premature death of Attilla the HunA hot dispute had arisen on a hunting trip on the banks of the Danube River where the monarch had sanctimonously announced his plans to reconsecrate the new town of Sicambria in his own name to "Budapest" as the capital of the Hunnic Empire. Because their uncle Rugila had bequeathed them joint rulership of the united Hunnic tribes, this was too much for his younger brother Attilla and the sibling rivalry immediately developed into a vicious fight to the death. Attilla attacked first, and would surely have triumphed, if not for the actions of Zerco, underestimated as a mascot dressed up in armour for amusement. Because as the dispute had began to escalate, Zerco had quickly made his own calculations, figuring that should Attilla prevail, then he himself would most likely be spending the night on the bed of the Danube River alongside his dead master.

Of course he had watched the resentment reach boiling point ever since the failed campaign in the East. And now Buda made his own calculation, realizing that his own rage was driven by the frustraton of Sicambria was a commiseration prize. The result was that Buda dumped the dead body of his brother into the river and mustered the army. Marching east, they set about installing Constantinople as the glittering capital of their Hunnic Empire.

Unfortunately for their recent opponents, a recent earthquake had breached the previously impregnable walls of the city. The prefect Constantinus had actually started their reconstruction, but because he was not expecting the Huns to return so quickly, he was forced to rely upon Isaurian troops under the command of the magister militum per Orientem Zeno. The city fell, and the Huns finally had a capital city worthy of their vast empire.

In 994, on this day the Byzantines and their Hamdanid allies relieved the city of Apamea which had been laid under siege by forces of the Fatimid vizier of Damascus.

Relief of ApameaMichael Bourtzes the doux of Antioch had come forth to the aid of the Hamdanid dynasty, the masters of Aleppo. Because the continued existence of this Byzantine vassal state was threatened by the Fatimid vizier of Damascus, the formidable Turkish general Manjutakin.

The clash of arms occurred across two fords on the Orontes. Having anticipated that Manjutakin would prey upon his weaker allies, he concealed the prescence of significant elements of the main Byzantine Army inside the Hamdanid Forces. This defensive mechanism maintained the shape of Bourtzes forces, and the eventual result was a resounding triumph for the Byzantines and their allies.

Victory marked a significant change of fortunes in the long-running war in Syria, a strategic area for the Byzantines due to their food dependency on Egyptian Granaries.

In 1488, on this day the Italian navigator Cristoforo Colombo entered the Lisbon quarters of his brother, the cartographer Bartolomeo with an application for royal funds to be presented at the English Court.

How the English Discovered AmericaNarrowly escaping the clutches of pirates, the map-maker arrived safely in Bristol where old shipmates and acquaintenances were easily found. These men would ultimately crew the St Mary, the Galway, the Painted and the St Clare. But first he had to travel to the English Court looking for money and support.

Of course, Henry VII had the necessary intelligence to see the benefit of an English-financed voyage of discovery, but the King was cautious about investing money in doubtful enterprises. Ultimately he was persuaded by the testimony of the Bristol mariners, who substantiated Bartolomeo's broader arguments with specific witnessed accounts of red dye from Brazil and fishing stocks off the coast of Newfoundland.

And so Batolomeo was issued with a royal letter of patent, charging the Colombo brothers with "free authority, faculty and power to sail to all parts, regions and coasts of the eastern, western and northern sea, under our banners, flags and ensigns, with five ships or vessels of whatsoever burden and quality they may be, and with so many and with such mariners and men as they may wish to take with them in the said ships, at their own proper costs and charges, to find, discover and investigate whatsoever islands, countries, regions or provinces of heathens and infidels, in whatsoever part of the world placed, which before this time were unknown to all Christians".

By 1861, California posed a new problem to the United States. While territories connected it with the East, California gained statehood almost spontaneously in 1850 thanks to the gold rush, becoming the first state separate from the Capital. Communication was difficult, to say the least.

Air Mail Route from San Francisco Opens The new technology of telegraphs and railroads offered possibilities, but the lines would have to be constructed at immense cost. Wells, Fargo, & Company held a virtual monopoly on the task of express mail with a sea-and-land route across the Isthmus of Panama, cutting months off the journey around South America. An overland route would be even faster, and Congress sought a solution with a pledge of $600,000 in yearly subsidies. In 1858, the solution was found with the Overland Mail Company, a start-up with William Fargo on the board of directors. Over one million dollars would be spent improving its route across the West, which included way stations, horse corrals, and defenses against highwaymen and rogue Indians.

While mail could now be delivered, however expensively, by brave and hardy men, the passenger service was troubling. People were crammed into tiny carriages that bounced and rocked with every step the racing horses took. While some way stations offered places to sleep, coaches were hot-seated by their drivers and horses, and no one knew exactly when the next coach would come through, leaving passengers stuck in the middle of the West for days at a time. Food was expensive and notoriously bad. The option of crossing the Isthmus of Panama took much longer, but the comfort made it seem more practical.

Aeronauts John Wise and John La Mountain approached Fargo with a solution. As a pioneering American balloonist, he had made his first flight in 1835. Over the next years, he continued a serious study of aeronautics as well as making grand performances at county fairs. When the Civil War began, he was in competition with Thaddeus Lowe for the Army Balloon Corps to aid the Union with reconnaissance from the air. Lowe had beaten him to the Battle of Bull Run, but Wise had papers giving him the right of way. As Wise launched his balloon, it became entangled in brush and destroyed, ending his career for the Civil War. Lowe would go on to be Chief Aeronaut for the Union.

Wise planned to return to a normal life for some time, using balloons as perhaps a map-making tool, but the showman La Mountain met with him, inspired about the West. Years earlier, the two had worked on a transatlantic project, but the balloon had crashed and nearly ended their partnership. On his own in 1859, Wise had made the first air mail delivery in the United States, delivering 123 letters from Lafayette to Crawford, Indiana. Why could they not do the same for overland delivery over the Rockies?

They posed the question to Fargo. A smooth, peaceful sail over the mountains with no threat of robbery or attack sounded like a much more reasonable trip to Fargo, though the idea of balloon passenger service was uncanny. La Mountain suggested it could be at the very least a public relations demonstration, which caused Fargo to agree. The two set off on a ship through Panama, arriving in San Francisco and immediately launching their balloon on the third anniversary of the Overland Mail to the shock of newspapers around California. Newspapers in the East did not know the story until the balloon arrived in Kansas City, Missouri, on September 20. They had touched down twice at way stations to replenish fuel and food for their passenger, newspaperman and adventurer Bret Harte. The press latched onto the story from Harte's accounts, and Fargo was impressed enough to send Wise and La Mountain back with supplies for a larger balloon.

By spring of 1862, Wise and La Mountain had created a two-story balloon with privies and a lounge for their passengers. The balloon, dubbed the California, carried as many as fifteen passengers in comfort as well as whatever mail could be used as ballast. For years, the eastbound California would fly, landing in Kansas or sometimes Missouri, depending upon the wind. Wise and La Mountain improved their steering capabilities, but the possibility of floating west was made impossible by the "high winds" (what we now know as the jet stream).

On May 10, 1869, the transcontinental railroad was completed. Fargo pulled funding from the expensive, though pleasurable, balloon project despite Wise and La Mountain's pleadings. Progress had changed the world, Fargo explained, even the Overland Mail Company was being shut down. Armed with their savings, they built the Odyssey and began their transatlantic attempt in 1873 from New York. Neither was heard from again. The Atlantic would not be crossed until British aeronauts made a west-heading route to Barbados in 1958-9.

In 1792, on this day at the Port of Dover in Kent, republican intellectual Thomas Paine was arrested on charges of seditious libel.

Bring it on HomePaine had been charged with "inflammatory eloquence" at a gathering of the "Friends of Liberty" on September 12th. As he rose to leave, William Blake laid his hand on the orator's shoulder, saying, "You must not go home, or you are a dead man".

"Government by kings was first introduced into the world by the Heathens ... It was the most prosperous invention the Devil ever set foot for the promotion of idolatry"Paine planned to flee the country along with his companions Frost and Audibert. However, they never made it to France because the collector of customs had received general instructions to be vigilant, and searched the three men, even to their pockets. Whereupon sealed letters were discovered, given into Paine's charge by the American minister in London, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. One letter was addressed to the American minister at Paris, the other to a private gentleman; a letter from the president of the United States, and a letter from the secretary of State in America. Whilst his friends attempted to intercede on his behalf, Paine's warrant arrived and he was put under arrest. Had he arrived just twenty minutes earlier, Paine would most likely have missed the order and made it to Revolutionary France.

"What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly"On 18th December Paine was charged at The Guildhall, London, that he "being a person of a wicked, malicious and seditious disposition" etc "did publish that the crown of this kingdom was contrary to the rights of the inhabitants" and so forth. The Attorney-General, who prosecuted, said that he would not read out the many "false, wicked and scandalous assertions" but would read only a few more, such as "to inherit a crown is to inherit the people, as if they were flocks and herds". The famous Thomas Erskine defended Paine but the carefully selected jury, which received two guineas each and a free dinner for a conviction and nothing otherwise, decided to return a verdict of guilty. Paine was hung, and laws were soon passed to restrict free speech and publication. Almost inevitably, martyrdom transformed Paine into a rallying point for English revolutionaries. And so after his death, his revolutionary agenda would overthrow the British monarchy.

During the 1960s, Socialist Prime Minister Tony Benn would often refer to Paine's punchy political language and his inspirational quest for accountable government, presenting copies of Common Sense, Rights of Man and The Age of Reason to the Heads of State from Developing Nations.

In 2008, (UPI) Authorities in Caracas, Venezuela, denounced as 'superstitious rumor' the claim widely circulating in their country that a number of individuals recently reported as having died following attacks by vampire bats have 'returned to life' and begun exhibiting predatory behavior toward others.Superstitious Rumor by Eric Lipps
One Caracas tabloid claims that the bat attacks have been spreading a new virus, which it claims was developed in biological warfare laboratories. The outward signs of infection, the paper claims, are hypersensitivity to sunlight, bleached hair and skin, a loss of appetite for normal food and a pathological craving for blood. Some of these symptoms resemble those of porphyria, an enzyme disorder which may be either inherited or acquired and which some scientists have speculated may account for traditional vampire and werewolf legends. (Symptoms of porphyria can include a craving for blood or raw meat, as well as abnormal hair growth.)
Reports that an entire village has been cordoned off by the Venezuelan military have been vigorously denied by the country's Interior Minister, Ramon Rodriguez Chacin.
Officials at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia declined to comment on the Venezuelan situation.

In 2001, at a National Security Council meeting, President Gore expresses frustration at the failure of the previous day's raid in Afghanistan.Afghan Options by Eric LippsDefense Secretary Webb observes that bombings of that sort are notoriously ineffective; even the massive air raids of World War II, he reminds the President, failed to knock out German industry, while the bombing raid on Tripoli during the Reagan years which had been intended to kill Libyan dictator Muammar Kaddafi failed to do so.
JCS chairman General Hugh Shelton insists that since the Kabul government has refused to cooperate with the U.S. in rooting out Al Qaeda, the only workable option is to immediately send in a large ground force to do the job. "We've discussed this already, at our meeting on October 7," he reminds the President.
President Gore is still reluctant to invade Afghanistan. Turning to CIA Director George J. Tenet, he asks whether the Agency can mount a covert operation to go after Al Qaeda in Afghanistan. Tenet responds that it is possible, but warns that if the operation is exposed the U.S. will be forced to move immediately to open military action. He advises that preparations for a full-scale invasion continue, and stresses the need to keep those preparations secret.

On this day in 1967, an Iraqi military junta calling itself the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) seized power in Baghdad, seeking to undo what it called "the stain on our honor and that of our Arab brothers" inflicted by the Arabs' defeat in the Sinai War. The RCC's number two man was a then little-known army officer named Saddam Hussein, who just over a decade later would become head of the group and thus ruler of Iraq.

 - Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein

On this day in 1968, General William Westmoreland retired from active duty with the U.S. Army following the successful completion of the withdrawal of U.S. ground forces from South Vietnam.

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In 1607, on this day the British government organized an expedition to establish its third permanent settlement in the New World at the site of what is today Plymouth, Massachusetts.

 - Plymouth Sound
Plymouth Sound

In 1951, on this day the beleaguered Syrian government feld to Palmyra as Israeli ground forces overran Syria's temporary provisional capital of Aleppo.                            

Flag of
Flag of - Syria
Syria

In 2001, President Gore asks General Henry H. "Hugh" Shelton to stay on for another term as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The General agrees.

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On this day in 1974, the Dallas Cowboys opened their '74 NFL season with a 27-3 win over the Atlanta Falcons.

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In 1960, the New York Post published an editorial titled "Wagner Has To Go" which called for Mayor Robert F. Wagner to resign and make way for a new mayor who could do a more efficient job of directing the flow of post-storm recovery aid to New York City's residents.

New York Major
New York Major - Robert F. Wagner
Robert F. Wagner

In 2003, in an interview for the fourth season of The Michael Richards Show sitcom, the titular star reveals he and Jerry Seinfeld, his co-star on Seinfeld, are no longer on speaking terms.

"A few years ago, Jerry was disappointed I wasn't interested in doing a Seinfeld movie, because I wanted do my own show, and I guess he just took it the wrong way".

 - Michael Richards
Michael Richards

However, Richards says he has nothing but good memories of his time on the show, and particularly with it's leading man, "We had a lot of laughs.
And Jerry was to thank for a lot of the family unity we had in the cast and crew. I still talk to Julia [Louis-Dreyfus] and Jason [Alexander] a lot. They know I never said never to never playing Cosmo again, so the ball's in Jerry's court if he wants to call me".

On this day in 1941, the Japanese expeditionary force in Siberia was handed its first serious defeat when Soviet troops repulsed an Imperial Army attempt to seize Petropavlovsk.

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US President

In 2001, US President George W. Bush used the political gift certificate he was granted on September 11, when he could have asked Americans to do almost anything in the name of fighting terrorism, to impose a $1.50 'War on Terror' tax on a gallon of gas, doubling it to $3.00.

In 2008, Michael Kinsley described the long-term consequences of this action ~

US President - George Bush
George Bush

"People screamed with pain, then started adjusting. Demand went gone down, and today gas is selling for less than the $4 per gal. Not only that, but $1.50 of that price is staying here in the U.S. instead of going to Saudi Arabia or Venezuela or Bahrain. To the rest of the world, we look like protectionists. In fact, regarding oil, we've made a smart move". ~ Michael Kinsley, Time Magazine July 7th 2008

In 1485, King Richard III of England died of the sweating sickness.

Only two weeks before, Richard had won the Battle of Bosworth Field. At a critical point the King settled the issue at a stroke by driving through to Henry Tudor and killing him. The War of the Roses had reached an unexpected decision - a Hapsburg England - gifting the throne to Maximilian I, King of the Romans.

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In 1914, Siege of Paris starts. Germany does not attack the city, but leaves it unharmed. The Ambassador of the German Empire in London hints to the British government that peace talks about the west could have a chance.
In 1944, composer and band leader Glenn Miller disappeared over the English Channel. He had been appointed a Captain in the Army Specialist Corps whose job was keeping the troops' morale high, and was embarking on a tour of Europe. 20 years later, Miller and his plane reappeared on the French coast, not having aged a day. Neither Miller nor his crewmates could remember what had happened to them, in spite of many inducements to do so. The reappearance of the jazz legend brought his music back into style, and jazz experienced a renaissance.
In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson successfully negotiated the freedom of French Indochina. Wilson had become convinced to intervene on the behalf of the colonial possession since receiving a letter from a young Vietnamese man, Ho Chi Minh, and the assistance America had given France during the Great War gave him the necessary leverage to pull off the diplomatic coup. The area became strong allies of the United States, and assisted the Allied forces in Asia during World War II with distinction.
In 1915, the Boston Pilgrims beat the Jefferson City Nickels by the incredibly lopsided score of 20-1. Town Ball has seen few such blowouts since then, and the Nickels have never been beaten as badly.
In 1962, the Soviet ship Poltava heads toward Cuba, one of the events that set into motion the Cuban Missile Crisis. President Kennedy disregarded forged reconnaissance data presented by hawks who sought open war between the United States and the Soviet Union. Kennedy also ignored warnings that compromise was impossible. Instead he prevented a third world war more horrible than the second, in which he had lost his eldest son. The President could hardly be accused of inconsistency; he had after all supported appeasement since 1940 when he was the United States Ambassador to the Court of St. James.
In 1944, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Charles de Gaulle met in Quebec as part of the Octagon Conference to discuss strategy. With the Pacific War heading towards an end game, FDR agreed to land American Forces in North Africa as part of Operation Torch. Unfortunately for de Gaulle, FDR was defeated in the November Presidential Elections, and Charles Lindbergh pursued a very different US Foreign Policy. Winston Churchill could only wring his hands in New Britain, having refused to travel to New France for the Octagon Conference.
In 1940, the Battle of Britain ends with a Kriegsmarine victory over the Royal Navy. In How Chamberlain lost the Battle of Britain written in 1995, historian Richard M. Langworth recounted the battle. Critics muted their May 1940 attacks on the Government for the sake of national unity. Chamberlain heeds Reynaud's call for Britain to fling the bulk of her air force into Battle of France. Failing to group the British Expeditionary Force around Dunkirk, 300,000 British troops are lost in the greatest military disaster in British history. The Battle for Britain is fought first on the English Channel and then on the beaches and the landing grounds. Like the French before him, Chamberlain considers the choice between surrender and going down fighting--and chooses surrender. His successor, Halifax, signs the instrument of surrender while a raging Churchill escapes with the remnants of the fleet and sails to Falkland Islands, there to organize an international resistance movement.
In 1955, on this day Juan Peron was deposed in Argentina. However, Peronists succeeded in restoring him to the Presidency during the turbulence of the late 1970s. In 1982 Peron saluted a triumphant navy returning to port following victory in the South Atlantic. Along with signs of economic recovery in early 1983, the 'Falklands Factor' played a decisive role in his re-election.
In 1945, Enola Gay Pilot Colonel Paul Tibbets suicided, leaving a brief note saying he was so sorry, so very sorry. The horrifying being known as the Makon had entered the world through the fissure left by the nuclear explosion at Hiroshima on August 6th. Photographs taken by Colonel Tibbets from the the B-29 Enola Gay were likened to an actor sweeping back a huge curtain to enter the stage. For six weeks, the Makon had wrought havoc on the Japanese island of Honsh?. Nagging fear escalated to outright terror when the Makon took flight, heading for the Western Seaboard of North America.
In 1992, General Sir Peter Edgar de la Couer de la Billiere announced - 'Today has been an extremely difficult and turbulent day. Massive speculative flows continue to disrupt the exchange rate mechanism. The Government has concluded that Britain's best interest is served by suspending civilian government whilst emergency measures can be implemented'
In 1918, commander-in-chief General Edmund Allenby had the admiration of the men of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) . After a dispute with Field Marshall Haig, Allenby had been sent to Egypt to replace Sir Archibald Murray. Allenby quickly won the respect of his men by making frequent visits to front line troops (something which Murray, who generally ran his campaigns by remote control from Cairo, rarely did during his tenure with the EEF) and moving GHQ from comfortable Cairo to Rafah, much nearer the front lines at Gaza.

His usual installation of discipline and organization, organizing the heretofore disparate forces of the EEF into three corps - the XX and XXI Corps, both of infantry, and the Desert Mounted Corps, made up of mostly Australian Lighthorse (Mounted infantry).

One of Allenby's first moves was to support the efforts of T. E. Lawrence amongst the Arabs with GBP 200,000 a month.

Many of Allenby's men said after the war that they were willing to tolerate his strictness and rigidity because he gave the impression that he was in control of the situation, a feeling which Murray never inspired in his soldiers.

Question was, who was in control of Allenby after the Battle of Meggido?


September 14

Ukrainian insurgents launched a refresh wave of cross-borders attacks on Western Russian Cities.

Summer 2015 - Ukrainian Anarchy sweeps across the border into the Russian FederationDemonized as a belligerent expansionist by his earlier actions in Georgia and the Crimea the late great Federation President Vladimir Putin had failed to convince world opinion that the struggle for Ukraine was a struggle for Russia. With his military forced out of the crisis by economic sanctions, and the West unwilling to intervene with boots on the ground, inevitably the whole region had grown increasingly unstable.

Former Kremlin adviser Alexander Nekrassov had offered a chillingly accurate prediction just twelve months earlier "As Ukraine was slipping into anarchy and chaos, with all sorts of radicals causing mayhem, President Putin's end-game became obvious. He needed to do anything in his power to prevent Ukraine from becoming another Iraq, with a possibility of a civil war breaking out and violence spreading to Russia at some point".

Author's Note: in authoring this article we have re-purposed content from CNN and Wikipedia

In 2012, on this day the American-Japanese post-World War II film Emperor premiéred in cinemas across the United States. Set in the aftermath of the occupation of war-ravaged Japan, Tommy Lee Jones (centre), Matthew Fox (left) and Colin Moy starred as Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur and his sub-ordinates Brigadier General Bonner Fellers and General Richter.

Emperor premieresWhen MacArthur is given just ten days to determine Emperor Hirohito's war crime guilt, the task of conducting "Operation Blacklist" investigations falls upon the fair-minded Fellers. But unfortunately, Fellers is compromised by his love for a local school teacher called Aya Shimada. When the hateful Richter discovers his colleagues' sympathies, he launches his own investigation finding that Fellers had directed American bombing away from Shimada's village [1].

Richter, who is still trapped in a revenge mentality, takes over the Operation and wanting a punitive outcome reaches a very different, prejudicial conclusion. Although no evidence can be found of the Emperor's direct complicity, one pivotal decision is enough to prove his guilt. That is months before Pearl Harbour, in 1941, when the peace-seeking Fumimaro Konoye resigned, Hirohito had the task of appointing a replacement as Prime Minister. Instead of choosing Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni as Konoye recommended, he apppointed General of the Army Hideki Tōjō. This inevitably put the Empire of Japan on the path to war by giving the legitimacy of government to the militarists (Hirohito claimed it was not protocol to appoint a member of the royal house).

In the closing scenes of the film, MacArthur wrestles with the larger political question of whether putting Hirohito on trial will destroy the fragile peace and perhaps even encourage a Communist uprising. However the movie ends on a note of unspeakable joy when Fellers's driver Takahashi discovers that Shimada is alive. Watching their re-union, MacArthur files Richter's report in a waste paper basket [2] and tells Washington that since Hirohito's proclamation of surrender (in the face of armed resistance from the militarists) stopped the war he cannot be not guilty.

In 1901, President of the United States William McKinley dies after an assassination attempt on September 6, and is succeeded by Garret Augustus Hobart (pictured).

President HobartThe twenty-sixth President was born in Long Branch, New Jersey in 1844. After attending Rutgers College, Hobart read law with prominent Paterson attorney Socrates Tuttle. Although he rarely set foot in a courtroom, Hobart became wealthy as a corporate lawyer. Hobart served in local governmental positions, and then successfully ran for office as a Republican, serving in both the New Jersey General Assembly and the New Jersey Senate. He became Speaker of the first, and president of the latter.

Hobart was a longtime party official, and New Jersey delegates went to the 1896 Republican National Convention determined to nominate the popular lawyer for vice president. Hobart's political views were similar to those of McKinley, who was the presumptive Republican presidential candidate. With New Jersey a key state in the upcoming election, McKinley and his close adviser, future senator Mark Hanna, decided to have the convention select Hobart. The vice-presidential candidate emulated his running mate with a front porch campaign, though spending much time at the campaign's New York City office. McKinley and Hobart were elected.

He worked very closely with McKinley, so much so that he was informally known as the "Assistant President". As a result of this partnership, he was widely acknowledged as the of the most powerful vice presidents in history. Perhaps his most memorable moment in office was casting the tie breaking vote against Philippine independence. He was also a proponent of sound finance, famous for the sound bite "An honest dollar, worth 100 cents everywhere, cannot be coined out of fifty-three cents of silver, plus a legislative fiat".

Hobart rose unexpectedly to the Presidency on September 14th, 1901 when McKinley was assassinated at the Pan-American Exposition. Shot by the anarchist Leon Czolgosz in Buffalo, the most reknowned surgeon of the day, Dr. Roswell Park was unable to save his life even with the use of an experimental X-Ray machine which was on show at the exhibition.

In 1836, Aaron Burr, passed away aged eighty. Destined to rule, he had founded the breakaway Republic of Gloriana after intrigue prevented him from governing in the United States.

Passing of "this minuscule king, this traitor, Aaron Burr"Almost thirty years before, the former US Vice-President Aaron Burr had fled the young country he helped to found in order to escape conviction on charges of treason. Burr, along with a few hundred followers, established his own republic in the former French protectorate of Louisiana. He named himself president, but acted much more like a king. Many Americans who had been on the Tory side of the revolution, on hearing of Burr's new Gloriana, immigrated.

Although never large, Gloriana proved to be a thorn in the underside of the American nation as it tried to spread west, constantly harassing the Americans who attempted to settle in the Louisiana Purchase or move through it to Mexico and parts west. In 1823, President James Monroe decided that he could not leave office without handling "this minuscule king, this traitor, Aaron Burr," and asked for a declaration of war against Gloriana from Congress. The declaration passed swiftly, and Americans across the east coast signed up for the attack on Gloriana. Burr, seeing what was coming, tried to ask Mexico and the native nations around him for aid, but they all refused. The summer of 1823 saw the first border clash between Glorianans and Americans, and the Americans won handily. They pushed on swiftly, and the warm weather of south Louisiana allowed them to keep moving through winter and seize Burr's capitol of New Orleans. Burr himself fled and tried to rally what few Glorianans remained loyal to him at Natchitoches, but a disaffected Glorianan shot him on the way, putting an end to the small nation forever. By the time spring arrived in Louisiana, all the Glorianans had been repatriated into the US, and Burr's legacy was utterly destroyed. Little known, Burr had managed to escape, and died in obscurity on Statten Island, New York, not far from the site of his infamous duel with Alexander Hamilton.

In 1995, on this day the struggling Italian computer manufacturer Olivetti released the Envision 400/P75, a full multimedia PC for the living room that would transform the home computing experience.

Release of the Olivetti EnvisionA combination of Italian style and engineering talent in Ivrea had overcome the considerable challenges in conjugating innovation with quality standards in order to produce a home computing appliance for non-computer savvy people. Designed to resemble a videocassette recorder, the Envision bucked the trend in a diminishing PC market by convincing late adopting consumers that computers were not impossibly hard to use.

The Envision shipped with a choice of two processors: one based on the Intel 486 DX4 100mhz processor and one based on the Intel Pentium P75 processor. It had an infrared keyboard and an internal modem, and it was compatible with audio CDs, CD-ROMs, Photo CDs and Video CDs. It came with preinstalled programs that would allow it work as a fax, an answering machine when connected to the telephone line. It also had three possible operating modes: simple mode (limited to the use of an infrared remote control to control the volume and the reproduction of photo, video or audio CDs); intermediate mode (with a simplified Windows shell replacement called Olipilot that gave access to a limited set of programs); advanced (the standard Windows 95 graphical user interface).

In 1180, on this day the incomparable samarai Ōba Kagechika was killed and his Taira clan forces crushed at a fierce battle fought in the Hakone Mountains.

Early Decision in the Jishō-Juei WarThe victors were the warriors of the rival Minamoto clan led by the would-be rebel leader Yoritomo. He had been was exiled by Taira no Kiyomori following the Heiji Rebellion of 1160. When Kiyomori heard that Yoritomo had left Izu Province for the Hakone Pass, he appointed Ōba Kagechika to stop him. But they bungled a surprise attack in the night and Yoritomo emerged victorious.

Of course the real beneficiary of the Jishō-Juei War would be the new Shōgun, the Takakura Prince, Minamoto Mochimitsu. He would occupy the Imperial Throne for many years, and the influence of Yoritomo would sharply diminish.

In 1911, on this day the insidious plot to tear down the system of zemstvo ended in farce at the Kiev opera house when the architect of that government policy the Imperial Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin was harmlessly shot in his bullet proof vest by the leftist radical and Okhrana secret agent Dmitri Bogrov.

Stoylpin survives the "Tale of Tsar Saltan"The purpose of the state visit was to mark the half centenary of the liberation of Russia's serfs by unveiling a monument to Tsar Alexander II. In Stolypin's view this ceremony was aligned to the strategic objective of zemstvo which was to turn the Russian peasantry into prosperous independent small farmers who would be grateful and loyal to the imperial regime.

However the Russian Prime Minister was about to discover the frightening truth that the significance of the event was altogether different for Tsar Nicholas II. Because only a few hours before the evening performance of Rimsky-Korsakov's The Tale of Tsar Saltan he was presented with unmistakeable evidence of a deadly conspiracy being instigated by the Tsar himself.

As Stolypin sat poker-faced in the stalls, thoughts of the royal treachery were interrupted only by moments of irony in which elements of the opera overlapped with his current predicament. Because Tsar Saltan marched off to war for his son Prince Gvidon to be sealed up in a barrel and thrown into the sea.

The background was that Stolypin had risen to power in 1906 at a time when a weakened Tsar had been forced to pursue populist policies in the wake of the disasterous war with Japan and Father Gapon's uprising in St Petersburg. And although Stolypin had clumsily attempted to work for the benefit of the poorist members of society, his governance was anti-democratic, dismissing the new Parliament (Duma) at will.

Russia was now much stronger and inevitably the Tsar had reverted back to his own authoritarian mindset. But something else had changed too. His innermost Councils were now dominated the Mad Monk Rasputin who had won the royal family over by saving the life of their son Alexei.

A fearless man who was naturally reluctant to appear a coward by wearing a bullet proof vest, Stolypin was forced to look beyond his own mortality and grasp his own timeless significance at this moment in Russian history. Put simply he faced a massive decision. Stripped of his loyalty to the Tsar, could he now find a way to foster peasant prosperity in a new governance model. Perhaps even the previously unthinkable - a democratic model for a modern Republican Russia. In the final analysis, could he work in partnership with the Duma, and, like Rimsky-Korsakov's protagonist save the enchanted swan that was trapped in the cords of a deadly kite?

In 1901, President William McKinley recovers from the minor gunshot wound he had suffered on a visit to Buffalo, when an anarchist had taken an ill-aimed shot at him. A soldier who had been posted as security had noted the anarchist's nervous attitude, and just in the nick of time, had struck away the assassin's pistol.

McKinley RecoversPresident McKinley was grazed across the shoulder, a painful but non-fatal hit. As soon as he recovered, he returned to the public eye, holding a reception in the White House for business leaders from around the country.

A new story by Robbie TaylorAlthough he was urged by his advisors to tighten up on his personal security after this, he refused, saying, "Should I deny the public access to me, then this little pipsqueak of a man will have accomplished his task just as surely as if I were dead; for, if I cannot be seen among men without guards dogging my every step, then I have given in to the fear he wished to generate". McKinley, already a popular leader, grew even more so after this incident, and he used this newly-earned status to push through international agreements that he himself would have found unthinkable a few years before.

His second brush with death - his first had been as a soldier in the Civil War - found him rethinking many of his old positions. He had been known as a friend of business, but now he took an interest in the nascent labor movement in the country, and started urging conciliation with strikers, rather than the violent union-busting tactics that had been standard practice at that time. When his second term was ending in 1904, he let it be known that he would support the progressive Governor Robert La Follette of Wisconsin for the Republican nomination to the presidency. With McKinley's aid, La Follette won a hard election against Democrat Alton Parker and the Socialist Eugene Debs, who captured over a million votes, surprising everyone.

La Follette, with no serious opposition on his right, but plenty to his left, combined many popular moderate leftist positions in his platform, and guided America into an era where business and labor found common ground. He appointed former President McKinley to the position of Special Labor Advisor, which evolved over time into a cabinet position. La Follette proved even more popular than his predecessor, and won not just one reelection, but an unprecedented 3rd term in 1912.

In 1938, the day after Sudetenland Germans broke off relations with Czechoslovakia, Germany's Chancellor Adolph Hitler gave yet another rousing speech about the importance of self-determination. Citing American President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, Hitler and others such as Sudeten German leader Konrad Henlein made clear that the borders of Germany were not what they should be. Hitler had set the ultimatum of October 1 as the hand-over of the Sudetenland, which was demographically German, to Germany, and it looked as if the rest of Europe were going to agree.

Hitler's Demands Spark Demographic Study Most newspapers reported lightly on the speech, focusing more on the significant rioting as introduction of Czechoslovak troops into the region.

Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor, editor of National Geographic for nearly forty years, happened upon the story, and it put a thought into his head: What would Europe look like if state borders actually followed the bounds of national majority?

Preempting a story about the modernization of Hawaii, Grosvenor leaped into the project with many of his staff. They followed census data and made international calls, simply asking local editors what they thought each town would prefer. In the October 1938 issue, Grosvenor published his map, which gave a similar, yet ghostly, outline of Europe. The often fought-over Alsace-Lorraine between France and Germany was split, with a much larger area given to Luxembourg. Poland shifted slightly southeast. The Balkans followed much of their divides from being broken up in 1918 but with wider boundaries for Bosnians. Other people groups had countries that did not exist, such as the Basque of Spain.

After his takeover of Sudetenland, Hitler came upon the article and used it as propaganda, saying that even the Americans agreed. Much of Europe was unsettled by the thought of lines being shifted, while in the United States, the map was noticed only with anthropological interest and general academic humming. In the following months, Grosvenor would produce a series of such maps for Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and the many Native American settlements in western United States and Canada.

World War II swept across Europe, Africa, and the Pacific for the next six years. As it came to an end, diplomats began arguing over the reassigning of borders. When the old National Geographic map was shown to him, Franklin Roosevelt was impressed with his predecessor Wilson's ideas of giving people self-determination, so much so that he was willing to overlook its use by Hitler. He pushed for such restructuring during the Yalta Conference, and Truman pushed harder at Potsdam. As the United Nations took form, these principles became critical to international policy, causing several borders to be reshuffled. The later National Geographic maps helped create the numerous nations of Africa and India during decolonization, following demographic populations rather than old imperialistic treaties.

With minimal reason for civil disputes (excluding internal affairs, such as the Chinese Civil War and the Restructure of Ireland of the 1980s), most wars during the latter part of the twentieth century were blocked by means of UN peacekeepers defending borders and diplomats discussing alternatives. Some instances required further breakup of nations, such as the dissolution of Iraq into Sunnistan, Kurdistan, and Iraq proper in 1963 and North and South Sudan in 1972. Other instances, such as the Korean Police Action, ensured that the people of Korea were properly represented in democratic election of their pseudo-socialist republic in 1950.

In 1742, on this day the first Chief Magistrate of the United States, James Wilson was born in Carskerdo, Scotland.

Father of American Legislative Authority is born (in Scotland)Wilson began to read the law at the office of John Dickinson in 1767 and after two years of study he attained the bar in Philadelphia, setting up his own practice in Reading, Pennsylvania. Amongst the first and youngest of the Founding Fathers, as far back as 1768 he had established his thought leadership as a legal theoretician by penning "Considerations on the Nature and Extent of the Legislative Authority of the British Parliament", the first cogent argument to be formulated against British dominance.

In 1775 he was commissioned Colonel of the 4th Cumberland County Battalion and rose to the rank of Brigadier General of the Pennsylvania State Militia.

A signatory to the Declaration of Independence, he was elected twice to the Continental Congress where he came to see that the Articles of Confederation were not working. Arriving at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, he was amongst many delegates who set about writing a new Constitution. However, he was one of the few delegates to have served as a practicising law and a senior officer in the Continental Army.

During the debate on the Committee of Detail, he shaped the definition of the role of Chief Magistrate upon the New York and Massachusetts States constitutions. And at some point during the deliberations framing that role to "faithfully execute the laws" it became self-evident that only Wilson could navigate those vague legal definitions in office. Others might be greater, but he would be first.

In 1979, on this day the third President of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, Nur Muhammad Taraki was murdered at the People's Palace in Kabul.

Father of the NationTaraki had requested a meeting with his Pushtun rival, the Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin. Both men hailed from the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) which only a year before had established the new Republic after Mohammed Daoud Khan had overthrown his cousin Mohammed Zahir Shah, the last King (Shah) of Afghanistan. It would be twenty-five years before the leadership of a new "Father of the Nation" would be established.

Amin had agreed to the fateful meeting only if his safety was guaranteed by the Soviet Ambassador, Alexander Puzanov. Such assurances were provided, but not in good faith. Amin however knew Taraki's intentions, and the demand for the ambassador to guarantee his safety was probably a shrewd ploy on the part of Amin to mislead Taraki. When Amin arrived at the People's Palace, a shootout occurred. Amin escaped unhurt, returned later to the palace with some of his supporters and used the Palace Guard to take Taraki prisoner. On September 14 Amin took control of the governmen, announcing that Taraki died of an "undisclosed illness". Less than three months later, after the Amin government itself had been overthrown, the newly installed followers of Babrak Karmal gave another, very different account of Taraki's death. According to this account, Amin ordered the commander of the palace guard to have Taraki executed. Taraki reportedly was suffocated with a pillow over his head.

Furious debate raged in Moscow. Hardliners in the Politburo now argued that an invasion was necessary to provide assistance to the popular socialist government of the newly installed Afghan leader - the fifth President of Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in less than two years. General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev called for an "intervention". Yet the hardliners were defeated in argument by reformists, arguing persuasively that the West would view such an invasion as a chauvinist attempt to establish a warm-water port close to the Gulf of Arabia. Of course this long-held objective of Russian Foreign Policy dated back to the so-called "Great Game" during the nineteenth century. Three Afghan Wars had been fought to prevent Russian access to the Gulf, and this overarching goal had been adopted by America, Great Britain's successor power in the region.

The unspoken reality was that the Soviet Union was dying, and the contemplation of such an extraordinary expedition was driven by a sense of panic in the Soviet leadership. For surely the collapse of a communist ally would set off a chain reaction amongst the Soviet Muslim Republics. Yet America was also gripped by the same fear. Because only months before, the United States had lost its own "policeman in the Gulf" Shah Mohammed Pahlavi. In short order, the Soviets had "lost" Afganistan and the Americans had "lost" Iran.

"Twenty-year old Osama Bin Laden was urging his young Arab fighters to join their Muslim brothers at war in Iran".And so whilst the Soviet Union watched in horror as Afghanistan descended into bloody civil war, it would be America that pursued an interventionist policy. The American equipped Iraqi Army invaded the Islamic Republic of Iran. A furious escalation in the Cold War would now occur. The American decisions to halt grain shipments to the Soviet Union, and then boycott the Olympic Games in Moscow would be but the first steps in the beginning of a new crisis. But even as the Soviet Union dissolved, a new power was emerging in the Middle East, a terrifying cocktail of nationalism and religion that would challenge American hegemony. Because twenty-year old Osama Bin Laden was urging his young Arab fighters to join their Muslim brothers at war in Iran. In a fatal miscalculation, the new "Father of the Nation" was a Saudi national whose government had funded the emergence of Wahibist power in Afghanistan in order to head off nationalist insurrection by buying Muslim support in the Kingdom.

In 1940, on this day the Second Great War concluded in a dramatic fashion when the Chancellor of Britain, Adolf Hitler hoisted the Nazi flag up Blackpool Tower (pictured) to signify the end of the United Kingdom as an independent, sovereign nation. Not only had German soldiers marched along the coastline in order to reach the victory ceremony, the Italian Gardens in Stanley Park were used as a guide for paratroopers because the paths form a perfect compass. Nazi Playground

The iconic photographs of that September day shared much in common with the Fall of Paris on 14th June, not least of which was the close resemblance of the Blackpool and Eiffel Towers.

The truth was somewhat stranger. The resort had escaped unscathed during the Blitz which was odd considering that there were major British aircraft manufacturing factories situated there. Hitler had also spared the Lancashire resort during his planned invasion of Great Britain because he wanted the seaside town as a "playground". In fact the Fuhrer would also base the headquarters for his paratroopers there.

The phoney war had ended on the 10th May when the Wehrmacht had side-stepped the Maginot line. And a similiar act of military genius by Hitler would ensure the ultimate success of Operation Sealion.

In the months leading up to the invasion, the Germans conducted a deception operation, Operation Fortitude aimed at misleading the British regarding the date and place of the invasion. Expecting a strike from the Pas De Calais, the British High Command had been unable to defend the blow when it came from Normandy instead.

In 1982, Princess Grace of Monaco was released from the hospital after treatment for minor injuries sustained in a car accident the previous day.

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On this day in 1971, Chilean president Salvador Allende and army general Augusto Pinochet were both found shot to death in Allende's office; the two men had been arguing about the implementation of martial law after a China virus outbreak in southern Chile when Pinochet whipped out his sidearm in a fit of rage and fired twice into Allende's chest at point-blank range, then turned the gun on himself in a fit of depression and blew his brains out.

 - Salvadore Allende
Salvadore Allende

On this day in 1944, American forces overran the last pockets of German resistance in Rotterdam. That same day Dutch fascist collaborator Anton Mussert was assassinated in Amsterdam by Dutch anti-Nazi partisans.

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In 1958, the Thoreau, a small lunar probe, becomes the first man-made object to land on the moon. The Soviet States of America slowly build on that success of the next 16 years until they finally are able to send a man to the moon in 1974.


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© Today in Alternate History, 2013-. All characters appearing in this work are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental.