In 1960, Democrat John F. Kennedy wins the U.S. presidential election, beating Republican Richard M. Nixon by the narrowest popular-vote margin in modern times. Nixon supporters will claim for many years that Kennedy won with the help of vote fraud in Chicago which supposedly swung the state of Illinois his way and thus gave him the election. Kennedy backers will deny this and counter that even if Illinois had gone for Nixon he would still have lost in the electoral college. Kennedy's victory is marred by the fact that, by narrow margins, the GOP retains control of both House and Senate. The new president will face a hostile Congress.