In 31 BC, on this day the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic was fought on the Ionian Sea at the Battle of Actium.
Battle of ActiumThe combatants were the combined forces of Mark Antony and Queen Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt (pictured) set against a fleet commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa on behalf of Gaius Octavius Thurinus. The allied victory at Actium marked a defeat for both Octavius and Cleopatra.
The undisputed victor was Anthony who went on to win the war, and as the first emperor, ruled both the Roman world and also Egypt from Rome.
Very much the junior partner in political and military terms, Egypt needed a powerful Roman army to keep Cleopatra on the throne. The alliance did not survive the Final War of the Roman Republic and in despair, Cleopatra killed herself by inducing an Egyptian cobra to bite her.