In 1801, the state militias dispatched by the Republican Governors of Pennsylvania and Virginia marched into Washington City to unseat Federalist President John Marshall and force into office his cousin, the Democrat Republican Thomas Jefferson.
Republicans Burn Down the Executive MansionThe Constitution required that in the event of an electoral deadlock, the House must choose a President "immediately". Problem was that the popular choice was a Republican who had won a majority in the nations vote but could not muster the same in the Electoral College, forcing power into the hands of the Federalist-dominated House of Representatives.
Instead of horse-trading with either the Republican Candidates (Thomas Jefferson or Aaron Burr), instead they chose forty-six year old John Marshall who John Adams had appointed as Secretary of State on the 6th of June 1800. Because Adams had lost the 1800 election, Marshall's term of office was due to expire 4th of March 1801. In anticipation of an imminent departure from the Cabinet on 31st of January 1801 he accepted a new appointment as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Whilst there was a certain inexorable logic to the selection of Marshall, he was ultimately a Federalist as were the "Midnight Judges" appointed by Adams at the bitter end of his single term Presidency. Not only were Republicans enraged that Jefferson would be denied his righful place as the "People's President", they also saw further conspiracy in the Federalist actions. Because Jefferson's "revolution of 1800" threatened to sweep away all vestiges of the first three Presidential terms. And so the actions of the House were perceived to be a "counter-revolution" of 1801.
In the event, matters came to a violent ending and the Executive Mansion was set ablaze. Because the building was so badly charred, it was necessary to white wash the exterior, and the Executive Mansion was renamed the "White House".