In 1999, Australians narrowly voted to replace the Head of the Commonwealth as their head of state in the Australian republic referendum.
Australian Republic 1999The republican movement had been around in Australia since its independence, but it began gaining support and momentum going into the 1990's. Thomas Keneally founded the Australian Republican Movement (ARM) in 1991 after the Labour party adopted republicanism as a policy in June the same year. By 1993, the investment banker Malcom Turnbull became chairman of the ARM. Later that year, the Republican Advisory Committee was created by the incumbent prime minister's party (Labour) which later laid foundations for a proposed change in the Australian Constitution.
In order to gain a 50 percent majority, certain compromises had to be made to allow for the national antipathy towards politicians. Instead of the Governor-General being simply replaced by the word President, the President would be directly elected by the people (albeit with very limited powers). As a result, Malcolm Turnbull became the inaugural office holder, and despite the limitations of his office, his moral leadership ensured that the new Republic kept Australia out of the Iraq War.
In 1605, on this fateful day King Henry IX demanded the arrest of the cowardly Spanish plotters that had blown up the Houses of Parliament, killing his beloved late father James I.
Remember, Remember the Fifth of NovemberAnd sure enough the men's heads were firmly placed on spikes at Traitor's Gate in the Tower of London. But it did no good for Henry who followed in death fast on their heals, aged eighteen he would perish from typhoid fever just a few years later.
Soon after his younger brother Charles II ascended to the thrown in 1612, an incredible rumour began to sweep the city of London that the Spanish ring leader Guido Fawkes was actually an Englishman by the name of Guy Fawkes. "Guido" was merely a nom de guerre, a fancy name that he had adopted while fighting for the Spanish in the Low Countries. It was the kind of insidious treachery that had to be rooted out of English society of course, as Oliver Cromwell was to discover to his cost. He was executed in front of the Banqueting House at Whitehall.
The celebrated poet Andrew Marvell would immortalise the scene.
That thence the Republican actor borne the tragic scaffold might adorn:
While round the armed bands did clap their bloody hands
In 1632, on this day Gustavus the Great led a glorious charge at the defining moment of the Swedish Protestant Union's victory at Lützen.
Famous Protestant Victory at LützenThe Thirty Years' War now entered a new phase; not only was the Imperial onslaught on Saxony halted but the energies of the German Protestants began to further crystallize around around this talismanic figure who had now fully emerged as a a fearsome enemy to the Catholic Habsburgs.
But of course the famous victory itself was not without cost. Having been forced to assault an entrenched position, Sweden lost about six thousand men including badly wounded and deserters, many of whom may have drifted back to the ranks in the following weeks. The Imperial army lost slightly fewer men than the Swedes on the field; but more significantly the loss of the battlefield and general theatre of operations to the Swedes meant that fewer of the wounded and stragglers were able to rejoin the ranks.
In 1612, proving once again a dashing hero, the eighteen-year-old Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, recovered from typhoid fever to great acclaim.
Henry Frederick Recovers FeverThe eldest son of King James I of England (VI of Scotland) had already made a name for himself as the handsome, athletic, witty, just, and inspiring next leader of the British Isles.
Henry had been born at Stirling Castle February 19, 1594, and spent his early years in Scotland under the care of the Earl of Mar. His father, James, had worried about the boy being too near his mother Anne of Denmark's Catholic tendencies and so placed Henry among staunch Protestants despite the division it caused in his marriage. In 1603, James was called to London to be crowned, and he brought his family south with him. As Henry grew, his father created an environment that, according to Sir Thomas Chaloner, was a "courtly college or a collegiate court". James himself acted as lecturer and wrote tracts for his son such as The True Law of Free Monarchies, which detailed James' understanding of monarchy as Heavenly mandated absolute rule.
A new article by Jeff ProvineAt 11 years old, Henry entered Magdalen College at Oxford. There, he learned sportsmanship and became interested in politicking and the tactics of warfare. He also became fastidious in his Protestantism, even to the point of fining anyone who uttered a swear word, for which an alms box was always on hand for forced contributions. His small court was required to attend church services, and Henry himself became entranced in in the steely argumentation of Calvinism, whose sermons seemed to say to him, "Sir, you must hear me diligently: you must have a care to observe what I say".
In his teen years, Henry began to break with his family. He did not care for his increasingly extravagent younger brother, Charles, who seemed to emulate his father's ideals of autocracy. Henry had already rejected many of his father's values, especially James' sense of royal spending. The two very nearly rose to blows when James admonished Henry for not being energetic on a hunt, and Henry lifted his cane to strike his father out of rage but instead rode away. Most of the hunting party followed after the ever-increasingly popular Henry and left his father behind with a few loyals.
At the age of 18, Henry became ill during a typhoid fever epidemic but managed to recover. Upon the death of his father in 1625, Henry ascended the throne of England as Henry IX and the throne of Scotland as Henry I. James had spent the last years of his reign bickering with Parliament, and Henry began his rule by establishing an effective chain of command as well as respecting the right to free speech within the Commons. He approved the sanctions against Catholics and encouraged the increasing Protestantism of the country. Henry had made good on an old teasing promise to make his younger brother Archbishop of Canterbury, though Charles would constantly be admonished for overspending and, in truth, become a whipping boy for the perceived problems of the Anglican Church. Gradually over Henry's tenure, the strength of bishops would decline to favor a more Presbyterian system as seen in Scotland.
While Henry's domains seemed peaceable enough (although a campaign through Ireland to pacify the Catholic population became necessary in 1650), issues in foreign policy took up the majority of his reign. His deep sense of Protestantism caused war with Spain, and he agreed with Parliament on using naval tactics to undercut their flow of income from colonies. Through the seventeenth century, English and Dutch Protestant navies would seize much of the Caribbean. Henry also attempted to become involved in the Dutch War of Independence and the Thirty Years' War in the Germanies (especially since he married a Protestant German princess and his sister married Frederick V, Elector Palatine), but advisers such as Parliamentarian Oliver Cromwell encouraged him not to become tied up with the Continent. Instead, Henry focused on empire-building, as had been the dreams of Sir Walter Raleigh, whom Henry deeply admired and considered a friend. Henry fought bitterly with his father over the execution of Raleigh in 1618 after an illegal attack on a Spanish outpost, but the opinion of Spain's ambassador won out. He never forgave his father.
Following Raleigh's ideals, Henry widely encouraged settlement in the New World. Not only did his fleets seize islands from Spain, but he also created new colonies along the northern coast of South America and dispatched explorers and colonists to affirm English control of the Mississippi. His policies set precedent for colonial taxation through the Ship Tax, and taxation was reaffirmed in the next century by referrenda from the American colonies, who requested and were granted seats in Parliament.
In 1956, with cynical timing French-Israeli forces launch an invasion of the Suez Canal just one hour after the polls close for the US Presidential election.
Conjoined Crisis Part 2
Suez Canal Invasion LaunchedUnbeknown to the International Community, the British Government had co-authored the Protocol of Sévres, a secret tripartite agreement that Israel would invade the Sinai. Britain and France would then intervene, purportedly to separate the warring Israeli and Egyptian forces, instructing both to withdraw to a distance of sixteen kilometres from either side of the canal. The reasons to desire to topple Nasser were various; for British Prime Minister Eden, ghosts of Munich, France, meddling in their colony of Algeria, and for Israel, collaborative opportunity to diminsh a local rival.
The rational voices in London and Paris argued that the Canal could not be held by force, and noted also that the modern oil tankers were becoming too big to travel through it. However, the debate was then transformed by a secret request for refuge at the British Embassy from Hungarian Premier Imre Nagy. The secret service urged Eden to betray Nagy and trade his liberty with a pledge of non-interference from the Soviet Union. But in the event, the British Government decided to grant refuge and withdraw from the Suez Canal, venture privately telling France and Israel that its position within the Commonwealth would become diplomatically untenable if London was seen to overtly support one head of state whilst seeking to oust another. However, as a sign of tacit support, London did allow the French to use Cyprus as a staging area and the operation proceeded without Britain.
An article from the Conjoined Crisis thread..
It is 2012, and although he lost the Presidential election, Mitt Romney did go on to be chosen as the winner of the Mr. America male beauty contest.
Mitt loses election but wins Mr. America crown"His good looks, charm, charisma, high spirits and great big smile made him the obvious winner," the pageant chairwoman said. "Those qualities all showed up in the debate, and they would have made him president...if it had not been for Obama's startling confession".
She was referring to Obama's actions after that first debate. He had gone through the country on a pilgrimage of penitence equalled only by King Henry II letting the monks flog him for killing Thomas a Becket. His low point came when he said that he was honored to be speaking in an arena where Stevie Wonder and Jon Bon Jovi had provided great performances...even though he himself had given such a bad one. He finally won the election by a narrow victory, after confessing that he had not been up to par during the debate because he had been up all night dealing with an international crisis...namely, the Battle of Armageddon, which was averted when Jesus finally agreed to give everyone another chance, because, as he put it, "Mr. Obama is such a good family man , as the Republicans like to say".. But, as the new Mr. America put it, he expected to be elected next time, when Obama was no longer eligible...and when he himself would have an even better hair style.
In 1479, on this day future Queen Joanna of England was born in Toledo, Spain. She was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara.
Happy Endings Part 10
Many blessings of Joanna and ArthurBy the time she was of age to be married, the dynastic wars in England were over. To move the country forward in the face of renewed threats from France, King Henry VII decided to build upon the Tudor and Yorkish alliance. His primary aim was to prevent the French from supporting potential pretenders (most notably Perkin Warbeck) to the throne. And so he sought the support of Queen Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon ("Ferdinand the Catholic"). When his son Arthur was two years old, a marriage with their second youngest daughter, Catherine of Aragon was arranged for him as part of the Treaty of Medina del Campo.
Yet Isabella and Ferdinand were in no hurry to have their daughter married, and, although the treaty had been made, they were open to other options. Ferdinand was especially aware that Tudor rule was threatened and sent Pedro de Ayala as ambassador in Scotland, where Warbeck had found support. After Warbeck had been hanged and the Earl of Warwick, another potential threat, beheaded in 1499, the rule of Henry VII stabilised. The marriage to Prince Arthur could then proceed although these carefully laid plans were almost destroyed when the Prince of Wales almost perished from consumption. Fortunately, Joanna saved his life, and while their marriage was blessed with children, her younger sister Katherine was not so fortunate. She suffered from infertility and a tortured marriage. Her megalomaniac husband Philip the Handsome would dominate everyone on the continent reducing the power of Catholic England to a mere vassal state within a truly global Spanish Empire.
An article from the Happy Endings series conceived by Jackie Rose.
In 1923, on this day the thirty-eighth President of the United States Robert P. ("Bob") Griffin was born in Detroit, Michigan.
Robert P. Griffin
38th US PresidentDuring the Second World War he enlisted in the 71st Infantry Division and spent fourteen months in Europe. After the war, he graduated from Central Michigan College (now Central Michigan University) at Mount Pleasant in 1947. He received a law degree from the University of Michigan Law School and was admitted to the bar in 1950. He commenced the practice of law in Traverse City.
Griffin was elected as a Republican to U.S. House of Representatives from the Michigan's 9th congressional district in 1956, unseating incumbent Ruth Thompson in the Republican primary. He served in the Eighty-fifth United States Congress and to the four succeeding Congresses, serving from January 3, 1957, until his resignation May 10, 1966. He was appointed by Governor George Romney on May 11, 1966, to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Patrick V. McNamara. He was elected November 8, 1966, to a full six-year term, defeating former Governor "Soapy" Williams.
Only two years later, he was the surprise third choice choice for Richard Nixon's running mate. The original candidates were Maryland governor Spiro T. Agnew and fellow Michiganer George Romney who were both forced to withdraw from the the due race for very different reasons. Griffin played almost no meaningful role in the White House until the Watergate Crisis engulfed the Nixon Administration.
This post is a variant ending to two posts Death of President George Romney and President George W. Romney, Reboot.
In 2011, suddenly, and without any warning from the world's astronomers, four heavenly bodies converge into a shining new Star of Bethlehem which bathes in God's holy light the nuclear-armed Jericho missiles being readied for the cowardly destruction of Iran's atomic research facilities. And the unmistakeable sound of a trumpet is heard across the entire region by the millions who pray for peace in the Middle East.
Mullah-edThe God-fearing Israeli service men are shaken out of the destructive madness of their mission by these SIGNS. They CHOOSE to break themselves out of a senseless cycle of hatred, reprogramming the flight paths to the Old City of Jerusalem. Transformed into "Fishers of men", they replace the doomsday payloads with crates containing thousands of white doves that fill up the Autumn sky with joy and hope.
Sensing deliverance from God's divine intervention, Christians, Jews and Muslims embrace each other in holy dread. United together for the first time, they overthrow the regimes of the haters, the false prophets who plugged their ears while the world screamed in fear. Instead they CHOOSE to painfully set about building a new multi-faith nation of Canaan based upon the principle of brotherhood. And write a new constitution that forever enshrines the love of our common humanity, beginning with the deep truth that "Life is a beautiful poem written by the hand of God".
In 1962, on this day, former Vice President Richard M. Nixon won the gubernatorial race in his home state by the narrowest of margins (less than tenth of a percentage of the electorate) due to the unexpectedly poor voter turnout from Californian Democrats.
A Thousand Days
By Ed, Matt Dattilo, Scott Palter & Stan BrinHis losing opponent was the incumbent Governor, Pat Brown. During the campaign, certain discrediting facts had been leaked about a series of unreported felonies committed by men who were convicted murderers that Brown had seen fit to pardon. Also discredited in the eyes of Californian Democrats was Nixon's opponent in the 1960 Presidential Election. But in this case, the fall in popularity was due to actions committed by the opposite sex.
With the 1964 election on the horizon, the President visited California, but tragically, was assassinated in San Diego on 6th June 1963. Nixon revealed some of his frustration with the events of the previous three years by speaking some sharp words into a "hot mike". Having adressed the media and wrongly believing that the microphone was switched off, he added, "You won't have Jack Kennedy to kick around anymore because, gentlemen, this is his last press conference". continues in Part 2
In 1861, on this day Howell Cobb was elected President of the Confederate States of America.
Howell Cobb Elected CSA PresidentA misspoken word about the wisdom of secession in a speech by former US Secretary of War Jefferson Davis turned sentiment against him and caused former US Secretary of the Treasury Howell Cobb to be elected to the presidency of the newly formed Confederate States of America. The past years had been full of strife for the nation: economic turmoil, cultural diversion, and, especially, the growing political sentiment among Northern states that slavery was an all-out evil. Fearing suppression by the election of the Republican Abraham Lincoln, the South moved to secede.
Native Georgian Howell Cobb had been a leader throughout his life. After a career as a lawyer, he moved onto politics, serving as Congressman from Georgia from 1843 to 1851, as well as a stint as Speaker of the House from '49 to '51. He moved into the executive branch, serving as governor of Georgia, before returning to Washington as Secretary of the Treasury. Cobb had long been a supporter of the right of slavery, campaigning for its allowance into any territory before becoming a strong adherent to the Compromise of 1850. In 1860, it became obvious that states' rights would lose against federal tyranny, and so Cobb gave up Unionism and campaigned for secession.
"Davis, meanwhile, had been a soldier working his way through the ranks until being appointed as senator from Mississippi. A capable administrator, he moved forward as Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. When the notion of secession arose, Davis fought against it, though he finally gave way when the majority ruled. Cobb, one of the greatest leaders of the movement, had served as president of the provisional Confederacy government, and Davis was given the official head of state soon after. With reiterated words from his warnings about secession, however, public opinion turned against Davis, and Cobb would be inaugurated February 22, 1862.
Cobb reportedly admired Davis's skills and affirmed his loyalty to the South, making him general-in-chief of the Southern armies. While Davis worked to defend the homeland, Cobb rallied his people and relied on his talents in diplomacy. Campaigns of "Let Us Go" circulated throughout the South and into the North (where they were attempted to be contained). Davis and Lee argued to be allowed to march north to scare the Yankees into peace, but Cobb refused, saying it would undermine their position as innocents. Instead, he reinforced defenses particularly in the west, giving way to the bloody victory at Vicksburg in 1863, taking some 50,000 Union troops captive and securing the Mississippi.
Cobb also worked to win international recognition, which he was able to gain from Napoleon III in France, exchanging support for Maximilian I in Mexico. In 1864, Lincoln would lose the election to General George B. McClellan, and the Democrat's peace platform would put into works the Treaty of Washington in 1866 that would end the War of Secession. While provisions would invite the Confederacy to rejoin the Union, or vice-versa, the two became politically disunited. Having successfully ended the war within his six-year term, Cobb retired, endorsing Lee in the election of 1867.
The two Americas would go separate ways with the North focusing on industrial growth while the South hoped for imperialism. Over the latter part of the nineteenth century, slavery would give way to fiscal sense of large-scale machine farming in an industrial economy. When France collapsed in 1870, the CSA pushed southward for new colonial influence, but the resulting wars would prove to dishearten and weaken the South. In the push for New Nationalism in the 1890s, fueled by newspapermen such as Hearst, a revolution rose up to rejoin the USA. In the Organic Act of 1899, the Confederacy (with the exception of the Republic of Texas) voted to return to citizenship under the US Constitution and officially ending slavery.
In 1861, United States Senator Abraham Lincoln met in confidence with the general of the Illinois State Militia at Lincoln's home in Illinois' capitol, Springfield. The military man advised Lincoln that the State of Egypt (Illinois' neighbor to the immediate South) had preemptively mobilized to form a defensive force against possible aggressive action by Illinois' volunteer amateur soldiers.
A slaveowner's republicThe instigation behind the unprecedented action was the presidential election of 1860, which was being settled that day. Lincoln was the vice presidential running mate to Salmon P. Chase, and passed on to Chase news about slave power advocates readying themselves in Egypt for striking the first blow in a war for the creation of a slaveowner's republic.
A new story by Raymond SpeerEgypt was the northernmost of the Slave Border states, and brawls and riots over the legal status of Negroes were commonplace events there. In the previous decade, politics in Cairo had grown steadily more frothy with the approach of the War Over Slavery. And now Lincoln heard that an invasion of Egyptians was being planned. Supposedly, there was to be an invasion of Springfield with an aim to kidnap Abraham Lincoln and bring him into Egypt as a prisoner.
Lincoln several times said that he felt there was no substance to the speculation that he was planned as a target of violence. "I've been in Washington these last two years and know that the secessionists are not going to start bloodshed when they plan to avoid such trouble all together," said Lincoln. Even so, Lincoln consulted with his friends and they mobilized "Wide Awakes," volunteer marchers who planned to mount guard around Lincoln's House and stand discreetly alongside the Lincolns.
Late that evening, as the telegraph showed the Republicans (Chase and Lincoln) defeated the Democrats (Breckingridge and Seymour), there was a gunshot at the Lincoln's and a man who was a stranger to Lincoln was fatally wounded. That man, a military retiree named Grant, was accused of trying to barge into Lincoln's home at roughly ten PM that night, carrying a loaded revolver and smelling of the consumption of liquor. Whether or not ex-Captain Grant had been an emissary from Egypt has never been settled.
Before the time of the Chase and Lincoln inauguration came about in the following March, horse and foot soldiers of both Illinois and Egypt fought in confrontations that grew in size to the actions of battalions. On the advice of Pinkerton's security detectives, President-Elect Chase chose not to go to Washington but to take his oath of office in Philadelphia, PA, (A reluctant Lincoln obeyed his instructions from Chase, and also failed to show in Washington DC.) As an outcome of that security decision, the secessionist executive (Breckingridge, supplemented now by new VP Stephens) took up their offices in Washington DC and awaited a challenge from the legal government.
In 1995, on this day Times Books published "Dreams from My Grandmother: A Story of Race and Inheritance" by a little known but upcoming Kenyan Government Minister called Barack Hussein Obama II (pictured). The autobiography describes an unhappy, confused period of his life in the continental United States before the author returned to his father's home in Nyang'oma Kogelo, Siaya District and reconnected with his African identity.
The Barack Obama Story, Part 2 - Dreams from my GrandmotherFollowing an unremarkable record of educational achievement, he entered North America's premier professional men's basketball league where he signed for the Chicago Bulls.
His father had been shocked to discover him suffering a profound identity crisis, addressing himself by the anglicized name Barry.
Despite this sadness, the author described his profound sense of love for his white grandmother, Madelyn Payne Dunham (pictured in 1979).
The strength of his transracial family would ultimately power this African icon to the pinnacles of global leadership. Elected as Kenya's first dual heritage President in 2008, Obama would be uniquely qualified to serve as UN Secretary General, an appointment he received in 2015.
In 1962, Richard Nixon won the governor's race in California against Democratic incumbent Edmond Brown.
Kicked to the KerbHe was reelected in 1966, and used the office for another unsuccessful run at the presidency in 1968. After the loss in '68, he remarked to reporters, "you won't have Nixon to kick around anymore".
He left public life after this and devoted himself to memoirs of his life as Vice-President and Governor.
In 1971, the Winnipeg Blue Bombers were eliminated in the first round of the CFL playoffs for the fourth straight year as they lost 23-20 in overtime to the Medicine Hat Red Dragons, who were making only their third CFL Western Division postseason appearance in franchise history.
On this day in 1941, Japanese resistance in Nemuro collapsed.
In 1977, Gov. James Earl Carter of Georgia was elected President of the Confederate States of America on the Democratic ticket, defeating the Confederate Party candidate, Texas Sen. Lloyd Bentsen.
Under the Confederate Constitution, presidential elections are scheduled in what would be off-years in the United States.
Jefferson Davis, for example, was elected in November 1861 after serving as 'provisional president' of the CSA. By tradition, the Confederate presidential election is held on Nov. 6, as the original had been, unless that date falls on a Sunday, in which case the vote occurs on the following Monday.
Confederate presidents serve six-year terms, and may not seek re-election; Carter, therefore, will serve from February 22, 1978, the date of his inauguration, until February 22, 1984.
On this day in 1982, Tommy Rich, now dubbing himself 'Psycho', appeared at his first WWF live card; he defeated Antiguan grappler S.D. 'Special Delivery' Jones on the undercard of a matinee at the Igloo in Pittsburgh.
In 1804, Congress meets to elect the President. The two main candidates are Vice-President Thomas Jefferson, who has been serving as acting President since Hamilton?s demise in July, and James Madison. Jefferson prevails, and Madison becomes vice-president. Jefferson will serve for more than twenty years, until his death on July 4, 1826.
In 1984, Senator Gary Hart is elected President, defeating Republican opponent Senator Robert Dole of Kansas.
Rep. Phil Gramm of Texas wins election to the U.S. Senate, defeating Democrat Lloyd Doggett.
In 1979, after initial efforts to persuade the Khomeini regime to order the release of the captive personnel of America's Tehran embassy fail, President Rockefeller confers with the National Security Council regarding his next options. Defense Secretary Haig recommends a tough stance, beginning with the immediate freezing of all Iranian government assets within the United States and a warning to Tehran that unless the hostages are quickly released, the U.S. will take military action.
The President is reluctant to use force, fearing that such a move will result in the killing of the hostages, but agrees to order a freeze on Iran's US holdings. CIA Director George H. W. Bush suggests that a covert operation to 'extract' the hostages may be possible. The President directs him to draw up an action plan for consideration as soon as possible.
In 1962, the Democrats recapture control of the Senate after ten years in the minority. However, many of the new Democratic senators are hard-line Southern and Midwestern conservatives hostile to the Kennedy administration and the Supreme Court's civil rights rulings. They will quickly ally themselves with holdover conservatives of both parties. Republicans keep control of the House of Representatives. It will be a fateful development. Despite the departure of Joseph McCarthy, the new Congress will be dominated by people holding bitter grudges against both President Kennedy and Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren, and will lose no time in acting upon their hostility.
In 1812, Tsar Alexander I of Russia concludes a peace treaty with Napoleon.
Under its terms, most of Poland will be incorporated in a supposedly independent 'Duchy of Warsaw' which in practice will be a political vassal of France, with the remainder to be ceded outright to Russia. The Russo-British alliance is to be voided, while Napoleon pledges to aid the Russians against Ottoman Turkey. Russia is to persuade Finland to declare war on Sweden to force the latter country into Napoleon's empire. A number of minor territorial adjustments are also included.
The British will regard these developments with fear and anger. Russia's 'betrayal,' as it will be called in London, inspires some reckless souls to call for a new war with that country. Common sense prevails, however, as it is pointed out that fighting Russia would require British armies to pass through territory now controlled by Napoleon's France.
Faced with the new European reality, Prime Minister Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, proclaims to Parliament the urgent need to build up British power where it can be done--overseas, particularly in the North American colonies. Toward that end, he proposes a program of aggressive colonial industrialization aimed at giving America the capacity to provide Britain with significant military and economic support. In addition, he calls for the acquisition of further North American territory, by purchase if possible but by force if necessary.
In 1917, Russian Prime Minister Kerensky saved his position by managing to convince enough soldiers to defend the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg that the Bolsheviks were unable to take it over. Kerensky offered amnesty to any Bolshevik who swore allegiance to the new government the next day, and thousands took him up on the offer, destroying Bolshevik leader Lenin's power base.
In 1906, news magnate William Randolph Hearst is elected governor of New York amid widespread allegations of vote fraud. Hearst uses his newspapers to promote his point of view exclusively, and bribes several people in the judiciary to keep his reputation intact. After quelling the disquiet over his election in New York, he uses the governor's mansion as a platform to launch himself into the White House in 1912.
In 1900, during the centennial celebrations for the North American Confederation, First Chancellor Himmahtooyahlatkekt announces that contact has been made with the Mlosh homeworld, and a Congress of Nations expedition has been launched towards it. Even with faster-than-light travel, the expedition will be gone for several years; the world breathlessly awaits what they will report back.
In 1860, Communist President Walt Whitman is reelected in a landslide against Democrat Andrew Johnson. In his second term, Whitman freed the slaves in the southern states, weathered a brief rebellion by that region, and established new rights for American workers that were unparalleled in western democracy.
King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia met Pope Benedict XVI at the Vatican - the first audience by the head of the Roman Catholic Church with a Saudi monarch. The King is considered a vital negotiator by Global Community Secretary General Nicolae Carpathia
in the attempt to create a multi-faith World Church. Carpathianism
as it is known would become the only legal religion on Earth and, following the events in the Book of Revelation that all were required to bear a mark (the biblical Mark of the Beast) signifying their loyalty to him and the Global Community in order to buy or sell.
Lt-Col T.E. Lawrence died and entered Valhalla. His decapitated corpse was found outside Deraa
by the Australian Breaker Morant
, who reacted with fury by shooting Turkish prisoners of war for the remainder of the Arab Revolt.
in Ottawa, Canada Duc de Richleau and Rex van Ryn rescued the Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien and his wife Aline from a First Nation cult. During the rescue they prevent Andre Dallaire brandishing an Inuit stone sculpture of a loon. The Prime Minister and his wife escape to the home of the Eatons, friends of Richleau and van Ryn, and are followed by the group's leader, Mocata, who has a psychic connection to the Chretiens. After visiting the house to discuss the matter, and an unsuccessful attempt to influence the initiates to return, Mocata forces Richleau and the other occupants to defend themselves through a night of first nation magic attacks. The dramatic story was described in the 2000 TV movie The Inuit Rides Out
directed by Dennis Wheatley Junior.
In 1941, retired Colonel T.E. Lawrence met with Winston Churchill plus Zionists Chaim Herzog and Aaron Aarohnson. All four delegates were very much aware that the Arab nation had turned against the British Government as a result of the betrayal of the Arab Revolt. Yet they agreed to a radical plan. Lawrence would travel to Cairo where he would attempt to 'turn' the Egyptian Officer Cadre who were leaking signal intelligence to General Erwin Rommel. The 'Keys to Rebecca' would be used to lead the Afrika Corps into an ambush before they could overrun North Afrika.
In 1963, in the city of Midland, Texas 17-year-old year old Laura Welch was driving her Chevrolet sedan on a clear night shortly after 8 p.m. when she drove illegally into an intersection. Welch struck a Corvair sedan killinh the driver, 17-year-old Michael Douglas who was thrown from the car and broke his neck. The Police report stated that the sedan was travelling at 60 mph, and the speed limit for the road was 55. Both Welch Bush and her passenger, Judy Dykes, also 17, were taken to a hospital and treated for minor injuries where it was established they had both been drinking. It also emerged that tragically Michael Douglas was the ex-boyfriend of Laura Welch. The police report indicates charges for vehicular manslaughter were filed.
In 1912, Theodore (T.R.) Roosevelt, Jr. was elected to the presidency of the United States. In so doing, he became the first politician to gain a third term of office, and the only politician apart from Grover Cleveland to win a non-consecutive term.
Roosevelt Runs Alone Oo one is quite certain who made the suggestion, and a dozen or more delegates have claimed it, but a little after midnight during the second day of the Progressive Party 1912 Convention in Chicago, someone said, "TR, why not just run yourself and have the Republicans come crawling back to you?". He had planned to have Hiram Johnson, Governor of California, as a running mate, but Roosevelt liked the idea. The Republicans had become corrupt and bloated, and so many of the Progressive Party members were former Republicans that they had a chance of overcoming the upper echelons that had gotten comfortable and were now in league with trusts (as Roosevelt often speculated). They had renominated Taft and VP James Sherman over him, causing the Progressives to reconvene with their own party. Roosevelt could think of no sweeter revenge, and no greater victory for the country, than to win back the control of the Republican Party.
Elections in 1912 were bloodthirsty. In October, when it became clear that Taft could not possibly win, the Republican Party began to re-evaluate. They knew Progressives were winning on state and local levels, but they felt they still had a stranglehold on the national government. If they lost that to the Democrats, however, then they would have nothing. After many backroom deals, they finally approached Roosevelt about reforming the two parties.
Roosevelt launched into the idea, having plotted for months about his actions. With great enthusiasm from the public, the scene was played publicly like a triumphant family reunion. Sherman stayed with him as VP while Taft was promised the Secretary of State. Although many who disapproved of Roosevelt voted for Wilson's "New Freedom" and limited government, Roosevelt narrowly won the election campaigning on the idea of a "Square Deal" for all.
Back in office as the second president to split his terms (Grover Cleveland having done so some thirty years before), Roosevelt set about punishing trusts with legal force and training up workers to pursue legal and public fights for fairness rather than depending on "socialist" strikes. The first two years ran fluidly, though the public began to grow tepid toward his ideals and thought more of limited government. After nervousness about his interventions in Latin America, voters in the 1914 elections swung support of Congress to Democrats.
Later that year, war broke out in Europe. Roosevelt was eager to become involved, but Congress refused to budge on declarations of war despite potential violations of treaties, such as the use of illegal chlorine gas by the Germans. Going without an army, Roosevelt went as a negotiator to Europe in 1915 to see if he might end the war as he had the Russo-Japanese War. The embroiled nations refused to budge as trench warfare continued. Defeated, Roosevelt returned to campaign for his reelection.
Again, the Republican Convention turned against him. After another threat of making a third party, it was mentioned to him that he couldn't be president if he were going to lead an expeditionary force in the war. Roosevelt then happily withdrew and campaigned with his endless energy for the candidate Charles Hughes. However, Democrat Woodrow Wilson would win on promises of maintaining peace. Despite promises, the peace would be shattered in 1917 with the sinking of the Lusitania, and Roosevelt would approach the White House with plans of leading an expedition to settle the European war. Wilson would decline the former president's offer.
Feeling dually betrayed, Roosevelt decided to raise up a force of volunteers anyway. While cries of treason began to go out, Wilson diplomatically funneled Roosevelt's efforts into the actual military and conscripted Roosevelt into home defense as a public face to Hoover's U.S. Food Administration. Though he would sit out the war, his son Quentin would participate as a pilot and give his life for his country. Roosevelt would never speak of war positively again.
In 1920, the country had tired of Wilson and his dealings in Europe, even to the point of the Senate refusing his League of Nations treaty. Wilson suffered a stroke in 1919, attributed to stress, and the Democrats were in rough shape for the election. The Republicans, meanwhile, readied Roosevelt for an unprecedented fourth term. He swept elections and returned to the White House in 1921. These would prove turbulent years with race issues, Republican dealings like naming Taft as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and political scandals such as the Teapot Dome Affair, though business affairs would flow smoothly, and Roosevelt became visibly tired. By the end of his term, he did not seek reelection and let the office fall to his VP Calvin Coolidge.
After a year of rest, Roosevelt decided to put off a trip to the Amazon he had been planning for a long time with the Museum of Natural History in New York. Despite suggestions of his family that he stay home and retire, Roosevelt launched his expedition up the Rio da Duvida (River of Doubt) at age 66. The expedition would never be seen again. Roosevelt would go down as perhaps history's greatest Missing Person.
In 333 BC, on this day the last King of Achaemenid Persia, Darius III was captured by soldiers of the invading Macedonian forces near the mouth of the Pinarus River in southern Anatolia.
Battle of IssusAfter Alexander's forces had successfully forced a crossing of the Hellespont, Persian satraps led by a Greek mercenary, Memnon of Rhodes had been defeated in a prior encounter at the Battle of the Granicus. And so in this second great battle for primacy in Asia, Darius chose to take personal charge of his army, gathering a large army from the depths of the empire. He maneuvered to cut the Macedonian line of supply, requiring Alexander to countermarch his forces, setting the stage for the battle near the mouth of the Pinarus River and south of the village of Issus.
The prospects for Persian victory seemed reasonable. Initially, Alexander chose what was apparently unfavorable ground to attack across which was in fact a feint meant to pin and hold the Persian forces. But this tactic surprised Darius who mistakenly elected to hold position while Alexander then led the true attack personally on the right while instructing the Macedonian phalanx trained infantry, his main body, to make contact and just hold the main Persian army in check; thus in essence he advanced to take up a defensive posture. Meanwhile Alexander personally led the elite Macedonian Companion cavalry against the Persian left up against the hills, and cut up the enemy on the less encumbering terrain generating a quick rout. After achieving a breakthrough, Alexander demonstrated he could achieve the difficult task of holding the cavalry successfully in check after it broke the Persian right. Alexander regrouped, then turned the body into the right flank of the Persian center, butchering Darius' body guard and under generals, provoking a panic and flight
Sensing defeat, Darius hesistated to flee the battlefield due to his reluctance to abandon many family members and a huge amount of treasure. And his departure was impeded by a general rout of fleeing Persian troops that led to a short chariot chase ending in his capture shortly before dark.
In 1952, on this day Senator Robert Alphonso Taft of Cincinnati was declared the winner of the U.S. presidential election.
President TaftHe had campaigned on an isolationist platform, correctly calculating the shift in national sentiment that had been brought about by the Korean War.
America was no longer a nation in uniform. And so his Democratic opponent General Dwight Eisenhower was seen as a man likely to keep America entangled in world affairs, an anachronistic throwback to his glory days of Second World War.
But more worrying still was his choice of running mate, the fervent anti-communist Richard Milhous Nixon. The possibility that Ike might threaten to bring nuclear weapons into the conflict was a real concern. A much larger concern was that prospect that the inexperienced Nixon might do so should Ike's faltering health collapse unexpectedly. Ironically, within eighteen months Taft himself was dead and Joseph McCarthy entered the White House.
In 1996, on this day President Robert Joseph ("Bob") Dole was elected with his running mate Jack Kemp, ending Bill Clinton's bid to become the first Democrat since FDR to gain re-election to the White House.
43rd President of the United States
January 3, 1997 - January 3, 2001When 1996 began it seemed incumbent president Bill Clinton would have a better - than-even shot in the upcoming presidential election. An economic boom in the USA was largely attributed to Clinton by the public, that combined with his folksy and down to Earth appeal had given him higher than expected approval ratings. The Republican Primaries saw three strong contenders for the Presidential Nomination: Senator Bob Dole, Pat Buchanan and the respected writer Steve Forbes.
Also expected to contend was Texas billionaire and former presidential candidate, Ross Perot.
A new article from Althistory WikiaThough Buchanan would make strong showings, they were ultimately trounced by Dale who went on to become the nominee. Dole then used the expected fiscal conservative stance when compared to Clinton's economic platform.
In June, Clinton was caught off guard when Ross Perot decided he would drop out of the race. Perot quickly made a speech in which he professed having little hope in achieving a win come November. This exit of a conservative leaning vote splitter came to Doles advantage giving him a boost in the polls. Clinton tried to dilute this effect by running a string of adds on national television attacking Dole's ability to lead. Many elderly voters were offended by the adds believing them to be an attack on Dole's age.
Clinton's attack-add gaffe and Perot's exit aided Doles campaign and concerns combined with the positive reaction of Dole choosing choosing Kemp caused Clinton's original 8 point lead to evaporate.
The Republican National Convention took place from August 12 to 15. It was seen as a great success for the party. Kemp gave an energetic speech where he promised to bring a new wave of conservatism to Washington.
Dole gave a lighter, but well received speech where he promised to fight for the middle class through tax cuts, and proposed less intervention in a more secure world with a more humble policy.
Near the end of August the Democratic National Convention was held. It was highlighted symbols of economic growth and peace for America's future. Clinton and his running mate Al Gore, saw their led bump back up to 5 points.
The Presidential Debates followed, Dole won the first narrowly. Clinton was attacked routinely during the debates and was forced to go on the defensive and downplay questions about attacks on Dole. The second debate was a clear win for the president, while the third went again narrowly towards Dole.
For the first time in the campaign the Dole-Kemp ticket took a lead.
The Vice-Presidential debate was much closure with both sides declaring victory. Kemp stated that Dole was a true leader with a record and a clear economic plan while Gore was associated with "The failed health care debacle". Gore counterattacked staunchly.
As Election Day came closure the Clinton campaign released "ads" which were designed to show off the Clinton/Gore adminstration had done for U.S abroad through great foreign policy achievements. The also released an ad showing the disagreements Dole had with Kemp.
The Dole team quickly struck back attacking president Clinton on a wide range of topics.
The polls became even as the election neared. Ultimately Dole/Kemp, with a coalition of red states edged Clinton winning with 279 electoral votes.
America prepared for the dawn of a new administration. This period was called the "Dawn of the Dole".
As part of his "growth plan" Bob Dole instituted the largest tax cuts in American history. This yielded the expected results. The economic growth seen under the Clinton administration more than doubled, and unemployment decreased to less than 4 percent. The budget deficit closed.
In 1999 after talks fail to resolve the crisis in Kosovo and end the genocide President Dole supports NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in spite of some opposition from Democrats and even a few conservatives.
The Democratic Party nominated Bill Bradley with Bob Kerry for his running mate. Dole decided for health resons not to run for re-election. First Lady Elizabeth Dole briefly considerd running but soon drooped the idea. The Republicans nominated Vice President Kemp with Florida Governor Jeb Bush as his running-mate. Since the economy had soured under Dole, Kemp won the election with 52 percent of the popular vote and 300 electoral votes.
Kemp's First Term
President Kemp increased the tax cuts of the Dole administration. He also pushes a program through Congress to create a Flat Tax of 15 percent.
2001 Terrorist Attempt
In August of 2001 President Kemp receives a document titled "Osama bin Laden Determined to Strike in the United States". He immediately orders an investigation, and heightened security at airports and prominent buildings. At the beginning of September 10 people are arrested on charges of conspiracy to commit terrorism. A plot is revealed that would've targeted the World Trade Centers, the Pentagon, and the White House. President Kemp asks Congress for authorization to go to invade Afghanistan.
In October the first American forces arrive. Within a few months the Taliban had been defeated. While there is an insurgency in Afghanistan President Kemp concentrates American forces there and Afghanistan has a stable, democratic government by 2004.
The Republican Party renominated Kemp. The Democrats in an attempt to appeal to the moderates, nominated Senator Evan Bayh. However, Kemp won by a landslide due to a mostly positive experience over the last 4 years.
2006 Mid-Term Elections
Republicans gain seats in both houses brining their total to 61 Senate seats and 259 House seats.
The Republican's nominate Vice President Jeb Bush with Arizona Senator John McCain as his running-mate. The Democrats are in disarray and nominate New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson with Massachusetts Senator John Kerry as his VP. That November, Richardson does better than expected but is unable to overcome Bush's commanding lead. The Democrats make gains in the congressional elections but the Republicans retain both houses.
In 1605, on this day Guido Fawkes ignited a Gunpowder Demonstration in London, England.
Fawkes Ignites Gunpowder Demonstration With the end of Elizabeth's reign as the Virgin Queen without an heir, James VI of Scotland was given the throne of England. Along with the change of ruler, the policies of the nation would change, specifically Elizabeth's noted religious toleration. James I, as he would be known in England, was staunchly Protestant and planned to establish renewed restrictions on Catholics. Sir Robert Catesby, a prominent recusant Catholic who had taken part in the botched Essex Rebellion of 1601, decided on violent revolt once more to overthrow James.
"Among Catesby's cohorts was a soldier named Guy Fawkes who had served nearly a decade fighting in Europe. "Guido," as was the Italian version of his name that he sometimes took, was a staunch Catholic after converting to follow his step-father. He fought in the Eighty Years' War as a mercenary for Spain against the Dutch and French. In 1603, after several honors for bravery and fighting skill, Fawkes was recommended as a captain. With his new rank, he headed to Spain to call for support from Philip III for a Catholic rebellion in England to overthrow the new Scot king. Philip refused, and Fawkes went to England unsupported for his own revolution.
In England, Fawkes fell in with Catesby's crew. As early as May of 1604, they planned to blow up Parliament with gunpowder, cutting the head from the snake and allowing the Catholic leaders of the nation, such as Catesby, to assume command. Fawkes, being the most knowledgeable in the ways of war, was to man the explosives. The conspirators made an attempt at digging a tunnel, but serendipity ended the action when they learned an undercroft beneath the House of Lords was being cleared out. Securing the lease, the men stored the gunpowder and waited for the opening of Parliament, delayed by plague until November 5.
During July, Fawkes chanced to meet an old school friend that had now become a Jesuit priest, Oswald Tesimond. The priest noted that Fawkes had maintained his cheerful manner, but that he now seemed too eager to turn to quarrels and strife. The wars in Europe had changed him, though not his loyalties. Fawkes took Tesimond into his confidence and confessed his plot to kill so many. Normally Tesimond would have followed typical recognition of man's will, but he became agitated and disgusted with Fawkes' new being. He asked Fawkes what good such wars had done in the Netherlands, where the soldier had seen so much innocent blood shed without abolition of the revolt. The brutal days of trading between Henry VIII's Anglican church and Mary's Catholicism were still fresh. Tesimond asked him to imagine Fawkes' native Yorkshire under the same brutality that had reigned on the Continent.
The image frightened Fawkes, and the confession changed him. Tesimond pronounced forgiveness even to the point he would not mention the affair to his superior, Father Henry Garnet, until that autumn. When Fawkes returned to Catesby, he began to demand a new strategy for the conspiracy. Instead of killing, he said that the power of the Catholics simply needed to be recognized. After accusations of cowardice and resulting fist-thrown duels to prove he was not, Fawkes took charge with a new scheme.
On November 5, 1605, a barge in the Thames erupted with a massive explosion of gunpowder. Following the blast, fireworks sprung out of the smoke into the sky over London. Parliament was interrupted while going through its ceremony of opening by James, and attention turned toward a solemn, peaceful, though armed, parade of Catholics approached led by Tesimond and Garnet. They waited outside of Parliament until invited to speak, and Catesby read a speech from a written letter signed, "Catholics of Englande".
Impressed by the bravado of the demonstration as well as the obvious power the demonstrators held, James recognized the significance of Catholics to his new kingdom. He would broker a political balance, focusing on unifying forces rather than rooting out potential dissidents. In his 1611 translation of the Bible to clarify troubling translations by Puritans, James would include several Catholic priests.
Since the enforced religious harmony of the early 1600s, uprisings would be primarily political, as in the Roundhead Revolution to establish a constitution for both monarch and Parliament to follow, penned in part by reformist Sir Oliver Cromwell.
In 1757, the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire defeated the Prussians at the Battle of ßossbach, in the Electorate of Saxony.
Prussians crash to defeat at Battle of RossbachThe victory was largely due to the vigilance of Charles, Prince de Soubise who had correctly anticipated the springing of a deadly trap by his dastardly Prussian counterpart, King Frederick II. Because the Prussian army broke camp and moved leaving a handful of light troops (pictured) to oppose the French advanced post, the flank guard on the Schartau hill. Half an hour after the King gave the order, they attacked but found the enemy prepared for a robust response.
General von Seydlitz and Prince Henry of Prussia were both killed in the intense fighting. And despite their valiant the Prussian force of three thousand five hundred horsemen was simply too small to defeat an entire Army of two combined European powers - once the element of surprise was neutralized.
In 1855, on this day the twenty-ninth President of the United States Eugene Victor ("Gene") Debs was born in Terre Haute, Indiana.
Birth of President Gene DebsIn the early part of his political career, Debs was a member of the Democratic Party. He was elected as a Democrat to the Indiana General Assembly in 1884. After working with several smaller unions, including the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, Debs was instrumental in the founding of the American Railway Union (ARU), the nation's first industrial union. When the ARU struck the Pullman Palace Car Company over pay cuts, President Grover Cleveland used the United States Army to break the strike. As a leader of the ARU, Debs was later imprisoned for failing to obey an injunction against the strike.
Debs was noted for his oratory, and a speech denouncing American participation in World War I led to his second arrest in 1918. But the working class had been radicalized by increased militarization and unionization, and when the government turned troops on strikers they had unwittingly opened the door for his Socialist Party of America.
In 1920, he ran a successful presidential run on the campaign slogan of "In Labor We Trust". Re-elected in 1924, he was actually selected for a third term as U.S. president at the Communist Party National Convention, but lost in the general election against Socialist candidate Clarence Darrow. Debs, ever the activist, moved to Russia and begins organizing labor there in unions, called soviets. The soviet was such a hit that many American unions and organizations begin using the name to describe themselves; indeed, even some states renamed themselves soviets to show their solidarity with the working man. This move might never have happened if Debs had won the 1928 election.
In 1775, in a masterful address to the Continental Army, General Washington vividly recalled the Gunpowder Plot as a brave example of the popular struggle against their hated Jacobite overlords.
Remember remember the fifth of November
Gunpowder, treason and plot.
I see no reason why
Should ever be forgot....
Fifth of November AddressUnfortunately Guy Fawkes and his fearsome band of republicans had been arrested while guarding explosives that the plotters had placed beneath the House of Lords. And although King James I had survived the attempt on his life, the authority of the Restored House of Stuart was later challenged by a new breed of rebels who lit bonfires throughout the British Empire.
Of course Washington's men would fare no better against the Stuarts, but in their burning of the effigies of popular hate-figures, such as the Pope, they brought an enlightened atheism to America that would survive the misery of their own short-lived rebellion. Marched to his execution at Traitor's Gate in the Tower of London, John Adams famously declared in a final note of defiance "This would be the best of all possible worlds, if there were no religion in it! ".
In 1940, Americans went to the polls bitterly divided. Roosevelt had the support of liberals and many moderates, but Lindbergh was far more popular with conservatives, especially in the South, where he had made a point of campaigning on assurances that he would not meddle with white supremacy or listen to "advisers whose background is alien to our Christian American traditions", a thinly veiled reference to Jews.
Lucky Lindy, Part TwoLindbergh also had the backing of powerful industrialists, among them the aging Henry Ford, who had been feted in Germany shortly after the candidate, and Thomas B. Watson of International Business Machines, whose company had established a booming business providing the third Reich's bureaucracy with tabulating machines. Lindbergh's slogan, "Real Jobs for a Strong America", was both a slam at the make-wok character of many of the jobs provided by such New Deal agencies as the Civilian Conservation Corps and an advertisement for his "America Invincible" program, a massive military buildup aimed at making the U.S. too strong militarily for any foreign power to dare attack, and this free to remain isolated from the growing storm abroad.
That this program was likely to cost as least as much as the New Deal and result in even greater expansion of governmental power counted less with many on the right than getting "That Man," as they called FDR, out of the Oval Office. Lindbergh also shrewdly appealed to those, mainly but not exclusively on the right, who were troubled by Roosevelt's decision to break the two-term tradition George Washington had begun, stoking fear and anger by asking repeatedly whether FDR ever intended to leave office at all. FDR's refusal to take the bait by promising that this would be his last race only seemed to make the aviator-hero's point for him.
It would be six A.M. the following morning before the results were in: Lindbergh had eked out a narrow victory, and would become the thirty-third President of the United States of America. In the euphoria of the moment, "Lucky Lindy" had no idea that his cherished dream of an invulnerable America standing aloof from the world was already under siege, on an island named Peenemunde and in the work of German physicists exploring the frightening implications of a discovery made in late December of 1938.
Continued from Part One.
In 1952, at 3:15 A.M., incumbent Harry S. Truman is declared the winner of the U.S. presidential election, embarrassing, among others, the Chicago Tribune newspaper, which incredibly had repeated its humiliating blunder of 1948 by once again prematurely calling the race for Truman's opponent in print.
Truman triumphs in '52 by Eric LippsRepublican nominee Dwight D. Eisenhower, like Thomas E. Dewey four years earlier, is gracious in defeat, although the popular World War II general's running mate, Sen. Richard M. Nixon of California, is less so, hinting darkly of fraud to reporters.
Truman's victory is, if anything, an even more stunning surprise this time around than it had been in 1948. The President's popularity had improved somewhat since then, especially in the South, where his hints four years earlier that he favored desegregation of the armed forces had led to threats by Southerners to mount a third-party challenge. The President's decision to heed military advisers who had warned that desegregation would undermine "unit cohesion" at a time when it appeared the U.S. might, despite its nuclear monopoly, have to intervene militarily in several overseas trouble spots, had defused that threat, but his refusal to take a strong stand with segregationists against such civil-rights liberals as Minnesota Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey had left lingering suspicions among Southern whites. On the other hand, his apparent unwillingness to take on the Dixiecrats had undermined black support for the Democratic Party. And the rise of Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy, whose charge of "twenty years of treason" on the part of the Democrats, worked against him as well: McCarthy blamed Truman for the Soviets' development of their own atomic bomb in 1949 and the "loss" of mainland China to the Communists that same year. To stem the slide, the President had resorted to steadily harsher anti-Communist rhetoric and had supported hard-line measures such as the National Security Act of 1950, which had declared the Communist Party an illegal foreign conspiracy and authorized the reactivation of six of the internment camps used to hold Japanese-Americans during World War II, this time to hold "Communists and Communist sympathizers" should the order for a roundup be given during a national emergency.
Arguably, it was the Republicans themselves who rescued Truman. Backbiting within the GOP between isolationists led by Sen. Robert A. Taft and interventionists, who favored Eisenhower, weakened partisan unity when Eisenhower received the party's nomination in exchange for agreeing to take the Taft faction's man, Nixon, as his VP. The uncomfortable relationship between the two men was worsened when, following the Republican convention, Sen. McCarthy expressed the view that Nixon himself--a vigorous McCarthy backer--would have been a better pick for the top spot.
In the end, it had come down to turnout, with Southern whites going narrowly for Truman, a Missouri native, over Eisenhower despite their reservations about the Democrat, while many Republicans dissatisfied with Ike, Nixon or both simply stayed home.
Ironically, Truman had almost decided not to run in '52, considering that his partial term as FDR's replacement after the latter's death in April 1945 meant that his re-election in 1952 would violate the two-term tradition. After FDR's three and a fraction terms, Truman had believed the country needed to resume the two-term rule to avoid a slide toward a banana-republic-style lifetime presidency. He had been persuaded to seek re-election only when advisers warned that if he did not, the nomination would likely go to a liberal such as Illinois' Adlai Stevenson, which would guarantee a Republican win.
A further irony was that although under the Twenty-second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, pushed through Congress and the state legislatures by Republicans in 1951, no one could seek more than two terms as president, the amendment was not retroactive, so that Truman was free to seek additional terms in the White House while Eisenhower, had he won, would have been limited to no more eight years in office. Once conservatives realized this, furious accusations would fly within the GOP and an "Amend the Amendment" drive would be organized by the Republican National Committee.
In 1863, at the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on this day the Governor of Kentucky, Thomas Lincoln, Jr. (pictured) delivered one of the greatest speeches in American history.
The Gettysburg Address by Ed & Scott PalterIn just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence, redefining the Civil War as a struggle not merely against the insidious forces of Federalism, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens by protecting the primacy of the states' rights. "We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain - that this Confederation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom - and that the state's government: of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth".Because hundreds of thousands of conscripts and European mercenaries had given their lives in the bloodiest war in human history in order to defend the Jeffersonian, confederalist system of states' rights.
"Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal".The defeat of the United States had forced the dissolution of the bastard rump state which emerged from the failed Constitutional Convention in 1787. Now Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, New Hampshire and Delware were liberated states which enjoyed in full measure the freedoms bequeathed them by the founding fathers.
In 2008, on this day the German Board of Film Censors prohibited the distribution of Quentin Tarantino's Jewish revenge movie "Inglorious Basterds", classifying both of the two "Bear Jew Execution Scenes" as gratuitously violent.
Watch Bear Jew Scene on Youtube
Dead LetterThe final reel of the movie depicts "Operation Kino", a successful mission by a team of Jewish American OSS soldiers which barbeques the entire Nazi High Command in a Parisian cinema whilst they are watching the propaganda movie "Nation's Pride".
Recognising an unmissable opportunity to save his own skin, the anti-hero SS Colonel Hans Landa allows the plot to proceed, permitting the "Bear Jew" Sergeant Donny Donovitz (pictured, played by Eli Roth) to escape in exchange for his own amnesty from the Holocaust war-crimes he has committed throughout the movie. However, Donovitz double crosses Landa, and executes him in the forest just before reaching Allied Lines, realising that the deal is a dead letter now that the war is over.
When Kevin hit the Austin city limits, he started fighting against people who were starting to use the inbound lanes of I-35 as outbound. Up till then, the traffic on his side had been pretty light; now, cars were coming at him at high speed, driven by people in a high panic.
Not that he really blamed them. He was kind of panicky, himself. According to the lady on the EBS, Waco had been completely evacuated from fear of nuclear fallout, and citizens were being urged to stay home unless the National Guard requested that you leave.
He found the downtown-only lane and slid into line behind several hundred cars. Since he was at a virtual stop, he pulled out the lottery ticket he had come to redeem. 3 million bucks, after taxes. The little orange and white slip had seemed like pure gold last night when he read the numbers from the lottery web site. Now, it just seemed like an unimportant scrap of paper; worse, it was bait that had lured him from a fairly safe location to what was probably a huge terrorist target.
He pulled out his cell phone and dialed the only person he still knew in Austin. The phone lines, unsurprisingly, were very busy, so he hung up and tried to dial his mother in Bryan. That was busy, too. So were his sister, his brother, all of his friends and his job, now. He wondered who had called him earlier, and checked the call log on his phone. It was a number he didn't know, so he tried to call it, expecting failure.
Instead, he got a clear line. "KBE Enterprises, this is Lilly, may I help you?"
"Uh, yeah, someone called me from this number a couple of hours ago. My name is Kevin Bradley".
There was a clacking of fingers on computer keys. "Yes, Mr. Bradley, please hold for a moment".
The line of cars ahead of him wasn't moving at any great pace, so Kevin shrugged and held on. Thinking that it might be a while, he plugged the cell phone's battery charger into the cigarette lighter and hit the loudspeaker option. The sound of the light muzak filled the cab of his truck.
Janice filled up the last empty jug she could find and capped it. She filled up the tub again and left the water standing. She could use that if the water was cut off. She had tried to call her parents, but the lines were all down, now.
The EBS was still broadcasting vague warnings to stay home and obey any orders the governor or National Guard might issue, but no real news on why martial law had been declared. She gathered that something had happened to Crawford, the president's ranch, but there was some doubt as to whether he had been there or not. That worried her a little bit; while she had voted for the man, she didn't like his vice-president, and didn't trust him like she trusted the president.
She looked around the house to see if there was anything else she could do. She wished that she had gone to the store last night; there wasn't a lot of food on her shelves, and if power went out, the fridge only had a few hours before it stopped holding cool air in.
She also pulled out the gun she kept by her bed and loaded it. If somebody decided that this house looked like a nice looting target, they'd be getting a big surprise.
In 2002, the Air Force pilot sent into the strange ship following Professor Thomas, Dr. Courtney and their other pilots back to earth reports that there is no one on board the ship. He finds the control center and is able to take full command of the vessel. Professor Thomas insists on taking it with them, against Dr. Courtney's better judgement.
In 1990, the assassination of Rabbi Meir Kahane in New York City sets off violence in both America and Israel as his followers begin indiscriminately killing Palestinians in retaliation. The violence escalates quickly in Israel, and turns into a small civil war, pitting the Israeli Arab population against the hardcore Kach, followers of Kahane.
In 1940, America demonstrates its impatience with Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal by denying him the unprecedented 3rd presidential term he was running for. Republican Alf Landon took over the reigns of America just in time to be plunged into World War II. The isolationist Landon was unable to handle the job of guiding America through such a great crisis, and was voted out after 1 term.
In 1890, Colonel Beauregard T. Jackson shoots Ezekial Morrison in the head, but one of the children inside the farmhouse trips the explosives; the farmhouse explodes, killing all but 3 of the hostages inside, as well as killing 14 soldiers and wounding Colonel Jackson. When he returns to Salt Lake City, Colonel Jackson doubles the bounty on rebel Mormon Charles Brigman.
In 1605, English Catholics blow up Parliament and kill King James I. The chief conspirator in the plot, Robert Catesby, kept the plan between himself and fellow conspirator Guy Fawkes, and their plan created havoc in England. There was an immediate struggle for the crown between several of James' cousins, and after King Robert ascended the throne in 1606, Catholicism became legal again.
© Today in Alternate History, 2013-. All characters appearing in this work are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental.