In 1937, on this day sixty-fourth United States Secretary of State Madeleine Korbelová Albright born in Prague, Czechoslovakia.
Blank CzechAfter serving as 20th United States Ambassador to the United Nations, she became the first woman to become the United States Secretary of State. A gifted if somewhat idealistic foreign affairs person conversant into six languages, she was routinely re-appointed following Bill Clinton's third-term re-election in 2000. But as events would transpire, continuity carried with it a heavy cost.
Clinton had listened to his Intelligence Services through his second term, closely monitoring the rise of al-Qaeda. Although follow-up actions were taken after the bombing of the USS Cole, the Administration failed to prevent the September 11th attack. In the aftermath, Albright played a leading role in building an international consensus, contextualizing the War on Terror as a global threat requiring co-ordinated actions.
But unfortunately trust was a double-edge sword and she was undone by events on the Korean peninsula. Having advocated food for disarming agreements, her credibility was destroyed by the jaw-dropping revelation that North Korea had developed nuclear weapons.
In 1968,  on this day Alabama Governor George Wallace was assassinated by Arthur Bremer in the Confederate State of East Maryland while campaigning to become President. Running as a Nationalist, he was hoping to succeed 19th POTCS Lyndon Baines Johnson whose single six-year term was due to end on March 4, 1969. An installment of the Federal's Lost Cause thread.
Federal Lost Cause Part 10: Assassination of the Fighting Little JudgeThe shooting occurred in the city of Laurel in northern Prince George's County. But the assassin had been seen earlier that day at another Wallace rally. The tragedy was the latest episode in a long series of disasters that had struck the Chesapeake Bay State over the course of a century and a half.
- During the War of 1812, British redcoats had marched through the county by way of Bladensburg to burn the White House. On their return, they kidnapped a prominent doctor, William Beanes. Lawyer, Francis Scott Key was asked to negotiate for his release, which resulted in his writing the Star Spangled Banner.
- With sympathies between the Union and the Confederacy following an East/West boundary, the ham-fisted policies of Acting President Hannibal Hamlin caused the geographical splitting of the State at the outside of the Civil War.
- In April 1865, a Marylander John Wilkes Booth had made his escape through Prince George's County after shooting President Hamlin in the Ford's Theatre (by then the Federal Government had returned to Washington, D.C having spent much of the war in Philadelphia). Booth was on his way to the Confederate Capital, Virginia.
However it appeared that Bremer was an apolitical crazy and yet ironically his intervention ended the career of one the South's most segregationist politicians. Without knowing it, Bremer had turned the page of history.
In 1902, on this day Richard Joseph Daley was born in Bridgeport, a working-class neighborhood of America's Second City, Chicago. He was the only child of Michael and Lillian (Dunne) Daley, whose families had both arrived from the Old Parish area, near Dungarvan, County Waterford, Ireland during the Great Famine.
Birth of Richard J. Daley, Chicago Mayor for LifeVery much a political expression of the aggressive tendencies of Chicagoans, he was the Mayor for twenty-one years and chairman of the Cook County Democratic Central Committee for twenty-three years, holding both positions until his death in office in 1976. During this period he would govern a mega-city sprawling out into much of Cook County. And because he invested all of his political capital in launching a long-term policy of suburban annexation  he will be forever associated with never-ending highway construction on I-94 through the Windy City and its suburbs .
Ten years before he took office,the National League Chicago Cubs beat the American League Detroit Tigers  in the 1945 World Series. Even back then, many doom-cryers were predicted the decline of Chicago that other "rust belt" cities like Cleveland, Buffalo and Detroit were beginning to experience. However events conspired to transition the blue collar "City of Broad Shoulders" to the modern day white collar mecca "Chi-Town", an economic powerhouse in the snow belt. Firstly, the earthquake of 1964  held back the development of its rival city of Los Angeles. And secondly, the expansion into the suburbs. Neverthless, by the late nineteen eighties Los Angeles was fast re-emerging with the the rise of the Sun Belt, and Chicagoans began to look nervously at the relative decline of St. Louis. Of course Detroit had only been saved from haunting ruin by the action of local advocates who had lobbied the United Nations into basing their head-quarters on Belle-Isle.
His three sons followed him into politics. His son Richard M. Daley became mayor of Chicago in 1989 and served until 2011, breaking his father's record for longest serving mayor of Chicago. Son William M. Daley is a former United States Secretary of Commerce and White House Chief of Staff. Son John P. Daley is a member of the Cook County Board of Commissioners and served in the Illinois State Legislature. It was a political dynasty that transformed the cynical perception of Chicago politicians, as corrupt officials giving hand outs to the Mafia, a hangover from the bad old days of Al Capone.
In 334 BC, on this day King Alexander III of Macedon was killed in a battle with the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor at the crossing of the Granicus River.
Battle of the GranicusHis own Companion Cavalry had charged headlong into the River to attack Memnon of Rhodes' Anatolian and Greek Mercenary forces which were arrayed against him on the other side. Leading from the front as always, Alexander ploughed into the first ranks of the enemy and along with a small group of his bodyguards burst into rear ranks where the Persian Commander Spithridates was pushing his own men into some order.
The Persian's first blow knocked Alexanders white plumed helmet sideways. Then he raised his large two-handed axe above his head and dispatched the young Macedon King just before his kinsmen "Cleitus the Black" could thrust his spear into Spithridates' neck.
With the battle lost, the Macedonian killing machine was halted and his unruly generals fell to squabbling about who would now lead the Army.
In 326 AD, with absolutely nothing to lose, Fausta Flavia Maxima confronted her husband Emperor Constantine I with the truth about the filthy lies being spread by his mother Helena. Rid of a delusion intended to unravel his well laid succession plans, he recovered his senses by instantly revoking the orders to execute her and his heir Crispus, the son born to his first wife Minervina. Although Helena was spared executed she was sent into internal exile.
Constantine future-proofs the DominateOf course this reversion to the original plan had the side effect of disinheriting the beneficiaries of the plot, his three surviving sons Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, and his two nephews Delmatius and Hannibalianus. And so, for the eleven remaining years of his reign, he had to hastily re-engineer the power structure of the Dominate. Of course what emerged was a modified form of the Hexarchy with senior "collegiate" leadership positions for all of the five siblings. But although this new order had the outward similiarities with the Diocletian System that Constantine I had helped destroy, it was robust because in practice it was even more totalitarian in nature. By accident rather than design, he had installed a future-proofed governance structure which substituted rivalry for nepotism. Needless to say, at the cost the memory of freedom and liberty in the minds of the Roman citizens.
In 1567, finally Mary, Queen of Scots found enduring happiness with her third husband James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell who she married on this historic day at the Holyrood Palace in the great city of Edinburgh. In fact, the Queen was so madly in love with Bothwell that she now appeared to give up even her Catholicism for him because the wedding was conducted according to the Protestant rites.
Happy Endings Part 4
The Wedding at HolyroodTo be sure the groom's elevation to Duke of Orkney fostered resentment in some quarters of Scottish society. And some Catholics even considered the marriage unlawful, since they did not recognise Bothwell's divorce or the validity of the Protestant service Also during the early months of their rule, murmurings of a rebellion were heard amongs the Scottish nobility who required little encourage to revert to lawlessness, violence, feuds and rapacity.
However the arrest and conviction of Mary's treacherous half-brother, the Earl of Moray, removed a mischievous key individual who could have siezed the thrown given the slightest opportunity. Another conspirator removed from the scene was the Queen's second husband, Lord Darney; it took a seven-hour murder trial to prove Bothwell's innocence. At last, Mary was able to put down a stable governance platform to build upon for the future. They never looked back; the royal couple were able to move the political situation forward, diminishing the power of the nobles and thus properly immersing Stuart Rule in the fabric of the still-Independent Kingdom of Scotland.
In 2012, on this day the fortieth anniversary of Operation Duck Hook was observed in both Vietnamese Capital Cities. Public reaction to this decisive act in the long civil war highlighted the increasing momentum for re-unification. Because the younger generation of citizens in the Republic of Vietnam openly questioned President Nixons's punitive nuclear bombing of the northern port of Haiphong.
A Savage, Decisive BlowThe origination of Duck Hook was the 1968 President election; to cynically exploit political expediency Nixon promised that "new leadership will end the war" in Vietnam. And so after assuming the presidency in January 1969, one of Nixon's top priorities was to end the War as quickly as possible on terms favorable to his administration.
The "secret plan" architected by National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger had become clear by the summer - a combination of international diplomacy with threats and acts of force would induce North Vietnam to bend to their will. A memo from Henry Kissinger to Nixon asked, "Should we be prepared to use nuclear weapons?" The memo warned that "Since we cannot confidently predict the exact point at which Hanoi could be likely to respond positively, we must be prepared to play out whatever string necessary". Kissinger's memo also stated that "To achieve its full effect on Hanoi's thinking, the action must be brutal".
To evaluate the secret plan prepared by members of the Joint Staff in Washington and military planners in Saigon, Kissinger set up a special NSC staff planning committee dubbed the "September Group". "I refuse to believe that a little fourth-rate power like North Vietnam does not have a breaking point," Kissinger stated. "It shall be the assignment of the [September] group to examine the option of a savage, decisive blow against North Vietnam. You start without any preconceptions at all". The president, he told them, wanted a "military plan designed for maximum impact on the enemy's military capability" in order to "force a rapid conclusion" to the war.
Nixon subsequently announced that if by November 1 the North Vietnamese did not agree to compromise on American terms, Nixon would "take measures of great consequence and force". Should these threats fail to move Moscow to persuade Hanoi to compromise, then the second phase of the military escalation option would begin: dramatic, sudden military pressure.
November 1st 1969 came and went, and matters did not come to a head until April 25 1972 at a meeting in the Executive Office Building - long after Kissinger had discarded the secret plan. Because the nuclear option was still on President Nixon's mind as he agonized about how to respond to the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive. Kissinger has started the meeting by laying out a variety of options for stepping up the war effort, such as attacking power plants and docks. "I'd rather use the nuclear bomb," Nixon responded. "That, I think, would just be too much," Kissinger replied. "The nuclear bomb. Does that bother you?" Nixon asked. "I just want you to think big".
The following month, the biggest escalation of the war since 1968 - Operation Duck Hook was announced. And political expediency triumphed again because Nixon really needed a "big trophy" to prevent certain defeat at the polls. During the re-election campaign, Nixon could tell voters that "America's long national nightmare was over".
In 1837, the U.S. Senate finally chooses a new President of the United States, and it is not any of the candidates who had contested the issue in the House.
Compromise Candidate by Eric LippsIn the weeks since the Senate convened for the first time in history to choose a president, acting under the provision of the U.S. Constitution that it perform this task if the House of Representatives proves unable to reach a majority decision on the issue, it has become clear that neither Acting President Andrew Jackson nor his remaining opponent, South Carolina's John Calhoun, can receive a majority vote, since too many supporters of former candidate Daniel Webster are unwilling to vote for either man.
"Only in these United States have we so refined democracy that the people's will as to who should occupy the Chief Magistracy may be divined by their elected representatives"Therefore, leaders of the Whigs, Federalists, and Democratic-Republican parties have worked out a compromise, agreeing on the famously nonpartisan Gen. Winfield Scott for president. Scott is deemed an expedient choice with the nation at war once more with Great Britain.
Jackson bows to this bargain and urges his supporters to accept it gracefully, stating, "Better that someone, even though not myself, be given the tenure, than that matters remain as they have been, with the highest office occupied on an ad hoc basis". Southerners, however, are furious when their favorite Calhoun is not awarded even the vice-presidency, which goes instead to the 64-year-old Gov. William Henry Harrison of Indiana. In a subsequent deal, therefore, Gen. Scott is persuaded to make Calhoun his Secretary of War upon assuming the presidency. Left unstated is that Scott's age opens the possibility that his lifetime tenure will be a short one, and that once the office of the president is again vacant Calhoun can seek it again.
Among the populace, reaction to Scott's election is mixed. The General is an authentic military hero of the War of 1812, but his selection seemingly from nowhere rankles. An editorial in the New York Sun tabloid newspaper will state: "Only in these United States have we so refined democracy that the people's will as to who should occupy the Chief Magistracy may be divined by their elected representatives not merely without consulting the people but without regard to the existing list of candidates among whom those representatives had formerly been selecting. "In the South, the "disrespect" allegedly shown Calhoun fuels secessionist sentiment, never quite extinguished following the so-called "nullification crisis " of 1832, in which the then-Senator had played a prominent role.
In 1984, U.S. combat troops in Cuba accepted the surrender of Havana.
In 2009, on this day the Department of Homeland Security verified that the Cuban Goverment provided very accurate information about who ordered the hit on the late US President and it is cartel leader Osiel Cardenas of the Mexican drug Gulf Cartel.
In 1919, this day is marked by great unrest in Germany, as the Freikorps fight against leftist rebels.
The Russian Civil War grinds on. The Hungarian communist government is destroyed, to be replaced by a 'monarchy without a monarch' under Admiral Horthy.
In 1980, President Nelson A. Rockefeller returns to the Oval Office following presentation of a formal letter to Congress asserting that he is now fit to carry out the duties of the presidency.
The letter is accompanied by medical documentation from the physicians who treated him at Walter Reed Hospital following his near-fatal heart attack a month earlier.
Although he has returned to work, a number of Republican Party insiders, among them supporters of insurgent candidate Ronald Reagan, are suggesting that Rockefeller should abandon his re-election campaign. They point out that his April hospitalization is just the latest and most serious of a series of recent health crises, and suggest that if he were re-elected he might die or be incapacitated during a time of national crisis.
On this day in 2006, the British soccer team West Ham United defeated Liverpool 4-3 on penalty kicks to win the 125th annual FA Cup final.
On this day in 1922, West German police officer Xavier March was born in Hamburg, Germany. March, who before joining the police had been a U-boat commander in the Kriegsmarine and was captured by the Allies near the end of the Second World War, would play a crucial role in foiling a rogue KGB operative's plot to assassinate President Lyndon Johnson during a state visit by Johnson to West Germany in April of 1964 to meet with West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer.
In 2005, Debra Morris, Chelsea Perkins and Patience Redding steal the ingredients they need in order to perform the spell that will take them back in time. It's risky roaming about London, because even though witches are nominally in charge, they are not liked by the general populace. As the clock strikes midnight, they begin their spell, and feel time warping around them.
In 1972, a loyal but overzealous comrade shot reactionary firebrand George Wallace as he campaigned in the Alabama Soviet for the governorship. Although Wallace stood no chance of winning, Comrade Arthur Bremer didn't want to risk it, and shot Wallace through the neck and head, killing him. A sympathetic jury found Comrade Bremer incompetent to stand trial, and the People's Judge sentenced him to a mere 5 years in a psychiatric ward.
In 1948, soldiers of the German Reich began a multi-pronged attack on Syria, Egypt and Lebanon after accusations that they had been acting as a staging ground for attacks from the Greater Zionist Resistance. The G.Z.R. put all of the resources it could into defending these Arabic nations, but they were unable to withstand the German onslaught.
In 1910, Q'Barian representatives come back to the Barnard's Star talks. They are unwilling to leave the Mlosh homeworld, but are more than ready to give in to every other Jovian demand. The new leadership of the Q'Bar is attempting to consolidate its power, and doesn't want to be fighting the Jovians as well as Q'B'Ton'ra's supporters.
In 1999, as Sir Lance du Lac prepares to leave for the Hungarian front, Queen Gwen comes to him and thanks him for his defense of her before the king. "You are the most gallant of knights, Sir Lance," she says. She glances about to make sure that they are alone, then caresses his cheek tenderly. Sir Lance is startled by this display of affection, and draws away.The queen drops her hand and looks away, saying, "Forgive me, sir. I was overcome by my gratitude; you saved my life, and I just want to..". She looked in his eyes, tears starting in her own, and du Lac was moved to wipe the tears from her face. She caught his hand in her own, and brought it to her lips. "You leave for the Hungarian front, sir?" He nodded, dumbly. "Then, let me send you off with love".
In 1891, Major Mark Wainwright desperately attacks the fort at Concordia, Kansas, hoping to overcome the men inside and use its defenses to protect his forces against the Kansan reinforcements moving to surround them. That night, just as Wainwright sees the lanterns of the approaching soldiers, the fort falls and the major hurries his surviving men to shore up the holes in the fort's walls before the Kansans reached them. "It's going to be a hard day tomorrow, boys," he says to his men.
In 1972, Arthur Bremer fired five shots at Presidential Candidate George Corley Wallace Sr while campaigning in Laurel, Maryland on May 15. Three others wounded in the shooting also survived. Bremer's diary, published after his arrest as An Assassin's Diary, showed that Bremer's assassination attempt was not motivated by politics, but by a desire for fame, and that President Nixon had been a possible target. Following the shooting, Wallace won sufficient primaries to carry the nomination at the Democratic National Convention in Miami on July 11, 1972. Wallace would be defeated by President Nixon in a landslide, with Nixon carrying 49 of the 50 states, losing only in Massachusetts.
While Wallace was recovering in Holy Cross Hospital in Silver Spring, Maryland, he was out of the state for more than 20 days, so the state constitution required the lieutenant governor, Jere Beasley, to serve as acting governor from June 5 until Wallace's return to Alabama on July 7. After which, he never returned to Maryland.
Bremer was sentenced to 53 years in prison for the shooting. He served 35 years of the sentence and was released on parole on November 9, 2007.
In 1957, Elvis Presley choked to death while traveling in Los Angeles, California. The autopsy showed that a cap on one of his teeth had come loose and blocked his airway; his teeny-bopper fans mourned him as if a god, and not a man, had died. The legend surrounding the rocker became larger than his limited repertoire could ever have built if he had lived.
In 1942, Hollywood B-lister Ronald Reagan applies to be transferred to an active unit of the Army Air Corps, rather than the cavalry division he had originally been assigned to. He becomes one of many stars who ends up fighting overseas, and becomes a tail-gunner on a B-29 over Europe. The horrors of war make him a lifelong pacifist, and he enters politics in an effort to keep America from ever going to war again.
In 1856, Scientific Romanticist Lyman F. Baum was born in Chittenango, New York. He thrilled audiences in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with his tales of emerald cities, islands in the sky and men made of tin; his books captivated America and owned the top spots on the bestseller lists upon publication.
In 4547, Phra Chomklao Chaoyuhua is named governor of Siam by Emperor Min-Yuan. It is a decision he will regret, as Governor Phra will lead the Siamese in the rebellion against him in 4561. Governor Phra quickly surrendered, but the rebellion became something that Min-Yuan regretted for the rest of his life.
In 1756, the 7 Year War began between England and France. Begun by minor French expansion in the Ohio River Valley, it gave the French an excuse to conduct wider war against English possessions in North America. By the end of the war, they had driven the Brits out of Canada and reduced the middle colonies to Virginia and Carolina.
In 1614, monarchy in France ended as King Louis XIII was overthrown by a large band of his noblemen. Because of internal tensions among them, none were able to claim the crown for themselves, so they turned France into an oligarchy ruled by the Council of 10 from Paris. This system inspired other nobles across the continent to demand more power for themselves, and the monarchies became mere shadows of their former glory.
In 1804, on this day the select group of U.S. Army volunteers
commissioned by President Jefferson as a "Corps of Discovery" departed
from Camp Dubois, St. Louis. Led by Second Lieutenant William Clark,
the expeditionaries travel to St Charles where they met up with their
Commander, Captain Meriwether Lewis.
Lewis and Clark ExpeditionThey followed the Missouri River, making their way westward, headed
for the continental divide through to the Pacific coast. But they only
got as far as the Platte River in Central Nebraska where they were
intercepted by agents of the Viceroyalty of New Spain .
They were taken to Sante Fe, Chihuahua and questioned by the governor . Although the primary objective of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was to explore and map the newly acquired territory of Louisiana,
their written orders revealed other secondary objectives. Because the
only possible reason for finding a practical route across the Western
half of the continent was to establish an American presence in this
territory before Britain and other European powers tried to claim it.
Although neither country sought conflict, the imprisonment of the
American created a tense diplomatic dispute between the United States
and Spain. It was only resolved by the payment of damages, an embarrassment that forced Secretary of States James Madison to withdraw his candidacy from the Presidential election of 1808.
In 1954, the Wehrmacht General who destroyed the Allied beachhead at Dunkirk Heinz Guderian died on this day in Schwangau, Allgäu. He was sixty-five years old.
Death of "Fast Heinz"His panzer group had led the "race to the sea" that split the Allied armies in two, depriving the French armies and the British Expeditionary Force in Northern France and Belgium of their fuel, food, spare parts and ammunition. Concerned about over-extension, members of High Command advised caution. And although their recommendation of a "Halt Order" was overruled by the Führer, they were to be proven right. Because the Massacre [of Allied Forces] at Dunkirk resulted in horrific German casualties and a dramatic loss of armour.
With the recriminations flying fast and furious in the bloody aftermath, Guderian not only blamed the leadership above him but also repeated a number of self-serving lies that alienated him from his colleagues. He was demoted to a junior position in a military training college where he served out the remainder of the war.
In 1868, on this day Tokugawa shogunate forces defeated an Imperial Army commanded by Satsuma and Ōgaki at the Battle of Utsunomiya Castle.
Battle of Utsunomiya CastleThe Shogunate had been retreating north towards the Aizu, a domain which had previously advocated surrender and peaceful negotiation first and resistance second. But the entrance of a massive number of loyalists forced its hand firmly into the realm of armed resistance.
And then a peasants revolt had enabled the forces commanded by the Tokugawa retainer Ōtori Keisuke to occupy Utsunomiya; they promptly emptied out the rice stored in the castle and handed it out to the townsfolk. Four days later, an Imperial Army swept up in a northeastward direction over the Mibu-kaidō road and launched an unsuccessful counterattack.
The combinations of result was a set back to the nobles and young samurai who were seeking to return political power to the imperial court. And the Boshin War was far from over.
In AD 33, after witnessing the risen Jesus being taken up to heaven in his resurrected body, Mary Magdalene embarked upon her own Odyssey, carrying the original written revelation to the West Coast of Ireland where THE TRUTH would remain concealed by Patricius and his followers for almost two millenia.
A beautiful poem written by the hand of GodMeanwhile the other companions of Jesus set out upon a somewhat different mission. Deprived of the original written revelation, they feared that oral tradition would result in THE TRUTH being lost altogether within a few short decades. Equally convinced that Judaism had misread its own history, they soon focused on the task of authoring a Christian Scripture which would comprise both the New Testament revelation and also a super-sized preamble of aspects of the Old Testament Writings.
It was pretty good, but the discovery in Ireland proved the old truism that nothing beats the original.
In 1939, U.S. President Gerald L. K. Smith announced the federalization of the Boy and Gorl Scouts under the umbrella of a new organization dubbed the Young Patriots of America.
Americanism by Eric LippsYounger members were to receive intensive instruction in "Americanism," including daily religious classes, along with rigorous physical training. Older ones, particularly teenagers from the former Explorer Scouts - now renamed the Young Defenders - would receive combat training to prepare them to battle "foreign invaders and domestic terrorists and subversives".
The Young Patriots would play an active role alongside adult police, paramilitaries from groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, and regular military forces during the Purification following passage of the Christian Faith Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1940.
In 2004, at the movie premier of "Escape from Baghdad", John McCain admitted to blaxploitation actor Barry Obama that he himself "could never look as cool" as the fictional President Cliff Robertson.
Escape from BaghdadUnlike the jumpy Presidents played by Donald Pleasance and Stacy Keach in the first two movies, the "King of Cool" maintains his composure throughout the film. Even when Air Force One crashes outside the Green Zone, and Snake Plissken (played by Kurt Russell) is once again sent in to rescue the US President from certain death.
And this time, Plissken faces a new and insidious challenge in the form of the mysterious company Blackwater International. Their sinister CEO Eric Prince (played by Robert Downey, Jr) attempts to cover-up the failure of his private security contractors to protect Robertson from falling into the hands of Iraqi extremists.
In a dramatic final scene, the two meet; Robertson says "I thought you were dead?" to which Plissken responds with his signature put-down "I thought you were taller?".
Click to Watch Trailer of Escape from New York
In 1863, on this day in Mississippi, the two Corps of the Army of the Tennessee led by Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant were defeated by the six thousand men of the Jackson City Garrison which was under the command of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston.
Confederate Victory at Jackson CityThe Confederate win at the Battle of Jackson prevented the Siege of Vicksburg, prolonging the war in the west, while the Union won at the Battle of Gettysburg. .
Both of these victories meant the continuing success of each government, and prolongs the war into a bloodier war in the once united nation. Fearing that the war would soon involve other nations, the United Kingdom and France get involved as an intermediaries, leading to a ceasefire and the conclusion of the Civil War. Both the United States and the Confederate States would sign the Treaty of London, which recognized the Confederate States as an independent nation. Not until 1947, though, would the United States recognize the southern states as anything but a part of the US but under a rogue government.
From the two Americas thread on Alt WikiaUnited States:
Without the burden of the Reconstruction of the southern states, the United States progressed in technology and domestic prowess. The states became bound with a sense of destiny and greatness. The borders were wide open to anyone who would come through in good faith. In the twentieth century they would gain tremendous financial power in the world.
For the rest of the nineteenth century the new nation would seek recognition from the rest of the world while being denied it at home. The Confederate States would become strong militarily, while simultaneously becoming the 'breadbasket of the world' with its strong agricultural base. The states acted in union, but each was sovereign over its internal affairs. Interstate commerce was largely in goods and services, with international commerce mostly in the export of food and textile goods. They would mostly be dependent on imports for any technological advances.
With both the Confederate States and the United States not developing into a major power as two separate entities, the Soviet Union was able to become the sole superpower, superseding the United Kingdom. With less resistance on the Soviet bloc, more nations becoming communist and the Soviet Union shows no signs of collapsing. There is still a defiant border between the democratic and capitalist world, and the communist world.
In 1984, Soviet diplomatic personnel began hastily evacuating East Germany as that country's anti-Communist rebellion started targeting Soviet nationals in what some Western intelligence analyst considered delayed retribution for the Red Army's role in suppressing the anti-Marxist uprising of June 1953.
In 1984, Soviet diplomatic personnel began hastily evacuating East Germany as that country's anti-Communist rebellion started targeting Soviet nationals in what some Western intelligence analyst considered delayed retribution for the Red Army's role in suppressing the anti-Marxist uprising of June 1953.
On this day in 1940, British, French, and Belgian troops entered Holland to stop the Nazi invasion of that country.
|US Vice President|
In 1993, Vice-President Bradley appears for the first of several days' testimony before Congress regarding the Nunn Administration's universal health insurance proposal, known as AmeriCare.
He faces hostile questioning from several conservative legislators.
The administration's plan will be controversial, and will face determined opposition from the health insurance industry. On June 1, the 'Harry and Louise' commercial, paid for by a lobbying group for that industry, makes its first appearance on television. It attacks the Bradley group's proposal, which is still under debate in Congress, and urges viewers to contact their congressmen to oppose AmeriCare.
In Congress, Massachusetts Rep. Mary Jo Kopechne will be a strong voice in favor of the health care proposal. Active in politics since the late 1960s, Rep. Kopechne has emerged as a prominent liberal spokeswoman since her election to the House in 1986
In 2005, Debra Morris, Chelsea Perkins and Patience Redding desperately try to convince the Council of Wisdom to send them back in time to correct the mistake made by Miss Morris, but the Council has too many members who enjoy their new power; in spite of the siege by the nations around them, they plan to go down fighting. Once Chelsea realizes they will not be swayed, she and Patience sneak into the Council's library and steal a book of spells on time.
In 1968, NBC's Tonight Show scored a huge ratings coup by getting international superstar Pete Best as a guest. Over the ten-minute talk, guest host Joe Garagiola had to ask the crowd for silence 15 times as Best's teenage fans kept shouting out their appreciation of the star.
In 1940, the government of the Netherlands surrendered to the German Underground, in spite of huge popular support for the Greater Zionist Resistance in the country. The Netherlands was a thorn in Germany's side for decades afterwards, and gave support to resistance fighters from across Europe. When the Reich finally 'cleansed' the Netherlands in 1974 of its last GZR sympathizers, the tiny nation had been turned into a virtual summer home for Germans - its population was 60% German immigrants.
In 1910, fighting is suspended between the Q'Bar and the Jovians as the Q'Barian revolution incites a huge internal struggle within their civilization. The Jovians use the opportunity to solidify their holdings in the Mlosh home system and transfer more artifacts of the Mlosh past to earth's solar system. Archaeologists are still studying these items today, and wish they hadn't been so damaged by the war.
In 4593, composer Kao Kokung used the unveiling of a statue to Emperor Min-Yuan to premiere what would become his most famous work, The Stars Bow Down. This piece has become ubiquitous at military and patriotic occasions and reflects the power of both the empire and the emperor.
In 1610, France's King Henri IV was killed by the monk Francois Ravillac. This prompted England's King James to press the English claim to the French throne, plunging the two nations into ten years of war against each other before England emerged victorious, and began slowly spreading its empire onto the continent.
In 1999, Sir Lance du Lac implores King Arthur II to show mercy to his queen. "They may have come at an unfortunate time, sire, but her distractions were simply to give you respite from the pressures of the war. She is no traitor". Arthur allows himself to be moved by du Lac's pleas, and pardons Queen Gwen.When she is brought before him, he says to her, "My queen, forgive me for my suspicions; these are hard times, and the loss of my oldest friend struck me harder than I thought it had". Gwen bows before him and says, "My lord, my heart, as ever, is yours". The king smiles, but as the queen rises from her bow, her eyes are locked on Sir Lance.
In 1891, with 3000 men at his back, Major Mark Wainwright marches on the fort at Concordia, Kansas, only to find much stiffer resistance than he had expected. Wainwright's plan had been to take the fort with a few hours of fighting, and use it as a staging ground for further forays deeper into Kansas. Instead, he and his men are bogged down in Concordia, as more reinforcements for the Kansans move towards the fort.As night falls and he pulls his men back unsuccessfully from the fort, the major receives a scout's report that Kansans are blocking their retreat back to Nebraska. Feeling the noose about his neck, Major Wainwright sends 4 scouts on fast horses to slip past the Kansan lines and try to get help from Nebraska, then tells his men, "Get ready. We either take this fort or they'll surround us and chop us to bits".
In 1955, in response to the European monarchies organizing the military alliance known as the EurAsian Treaty Organization, the communist nations of the western hemisphere create the Caracas Pact. This defensive organization, dominated by the Soviet States of America, created an alliance of comrades ready to come to each other's aid in the event of an attack by insidious capitalist reactionaries.
In 1948, on this day David Ben-Gurion announced the creation of the state of Israel in Tel Aviv. As he was speaking, though, Egyptian soldiers were pounding at the new nation's borders as the rest of the world failed to recognize the new state.
Despite brilliant maneuvering by their military leaders, the overwhelming numbers of Arabic fighters conquered and destroyed the Jewish nation in a matter of months.
In 1944, racecar driver George Lucas was born in Modesto, California. Lucas started out as a drag racer in Modesto, but soon graduated to the NASCAR circuit, and won the Indy 500 in 1977. Lucas credited tenacity for his success, sticking with racing in spite of an accident during his high school days.
In 614 AUC the Roman Senate declared that henceforth this day shall be known as Cybele's Day, a day to honor all mothers and their contributions to life and society. So, honor your mother today.
© Today in Alternate History, 2013-. All characters appearing in this work are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental.