In 1979, on this fateful day in Los Angeles, James Earl Carter was assassinated by a thirty-five year old Ohio-born unemployed American drifter called Raymond Lee Harvey. The President had been all set to deliver a speech to a predominantly Hispanic audience at the Civic Center Mall when eight shots had rung out in rapid succession.
The Assassination of the Georgia GiantLAPD managed to arrest both the assassin, and a gang of Mexican hit men armed with sniper rifles. In fact, an investigation ordered by President Mondale subsequently discovered that the original plan was for Harvey to simply act as a diversion, but to increase the odds of success, this was upgraded and his starter pistol replaced with a live weapon. And because of his successful shot, the Mexicans had attempted to escape, but had been apprehended anyway.
With the Presidential election just twelve months away, the conspiracy threw the campaign into confusion. And of course the multiple connections with John F. Kennedy had implications for the campaign of his younger brother Teddy.
In 1822, Sir Harry Paget Flashman VC KCB KCIE the fictionalized anti-hero of the Flashman Papers was born on this day to H. Buckley
Flashman, Esq., Ashby, and Hon. Alicia Paget.
Birth of FlashmanThe author Thomas Hughes introduced him as a notorious childhood bully in his 1857 classic Tom Brown's School Days in which the character was expelled for drunkenness. George MacDonald Fraser later decided to write Flashman's memoirs, portraying him an "illustrious Victorian soldier": experiencing many 19th-century wars and adventures and rising to high rank in the British Army, acclaimed as a great soldier, while remaining by his unapologetic self-description "a scoundrel, a liar, a cheat, a thief, a coward-and oh yes, a toady".
Naturally, when the 1971 mini-series of TBSC was a blockbuster success, screenplay writers proposed a continuation. And their search for a tall dark actor led them straight to Christopher Lee. The initial screenings were a huge success and over more than fifteen years all twelve volumes were turned into movies. For decades it framed Lee's acting career, typecast as "the man who played Flashman". But his desire to shoot horror movies was at least placated by his casting as Albus Dumbledore in the Harry Potter movies.
In 1914, on this day American film and stage actor Tyrone Edmund Power, Jr. was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1930s to the 1950s Power appeared in dozens of films, often in swashbuckler roles or romantic leads. His better-known films include The Mark of Zorro, Blood and Sand, The Black Swan, Prince of Foxes, The Black Rose, and Captain from Castile.
Happy Endings 22In fact, he had over-strained himself and had difficulty accepting the transition into middle age. On November 15, 1958 he was admitted to hospital suffering from acute chest pains. But fortunately, he recovered. This health scare vindicated his recent decision to turn down another strenuous role in Solomon and Sheba.
Even though he was only one year into his third marriage, his relationship with Debbie Ann Minardos had fundamentally changed him. And the prospect of the upcoming birth of their child (a son Tyrone William Power, IV) made him exercise caution. And ultimately, he had allowed himself to accept his wife's sound advice - to slow down. But to the outside world, all that was known at that time was that Power intended to move into character roles. Still only forty-four, he went on to star in some of his most memorable roles, continuing a long career into the late nineteen seventies.
In 1883, Field Marshal Archibald Wavell architect of the Allied conquest of North Africa born in Colchester, Essex. As the professional Head of Middle East Command he oversaw the successful prosecution of Operation Compass. And by early 1941 the Italian Army had been routed and Allied forces were the masters of North Africa.
The Oyster Clams UpBut events in Greece now conspired against him. Because Churchill desperately wanted to send several divisions of his experienced troops into Greece. During their strategic planning meetings, he was enraged by Wavell's long silences (King George VI nicknamed him "the oyster" after a sticky audience). Of course Churchill was thinking along the right lines, using Hitler's megalomania as a means of trapping the Nazi beast into exhaustion.
However, in practical military terms, Wavell was right to "Clam Up", Churchill was wrong and somehow common sense prevailed. Because surely British support would not change the outcome in Greece but it could reverse the hard fought victory in North Africa. And ultimately, Churchill could not afford to sanction that loss of his solitary victory.
And so Wavell continued his invasion of Libya. By the end of the year, Britain was the master of North Africa, and Nazi Germany the master of a similar sized space of Soviet Russia. Both nations then signed an armistice followed by a "spheres of interest" agreement. Just weeks later, Japan attacked Pearl Harbour and the United States joined a ferocious, must regional, war in the Far East.
In 1991, the shock reverberating across the nation began to abate somewhat with the greatly reassuring news that Senator Robert Dole of Kansas had agreed to serve as Veep in the one-day old Quayle Administration.
A Heartbeat Away, Part 2Dole joined the United States Army's Enlisted Reserve Corps to fight in World War II. Dole became a second lieutenant in the Army's 10th Mountain Division. In April 1945, while engaged in combat near Castel d'Aiano in the Apennine mountains southwest of Bologna, Italy, Dole was hit by German machine gun fire in his upper right back. His right arm was also badly injured. When fellow soldiers saw the extent of his injuries all they thought they could do was to "give him the largest dose of morphine they dared and write an "M" for "morphine" on his forehead in his own blood, so that nobody else who found him would give him a second, fatal dose". Dole had to wait nine hours on the battlefield before being taken to the 15th Evacuation Hospital. His right arm was paralyzed; he often carried a pen in his right hand to signal that Dole could not shake hands with that arm. He was three times decorated for heroism, receiving two Purple Hearts for his injuries, and the Bronze Star with combat "V" for valor for his attempt to assist a downed radio man.
And so being a man of honour and sense of duty, for the good of the nation Dole had graciously agreed to serve under a man thirty years younger than him and in a position he had sought fifteen years before under Gerald Ford. And maybe to rebuild his reputation from the damage done during the 1988 election, ironically enough, by the winning candidate, George H.W. Bush who had died during an emergency cardioversion just twenty-four hours before.
Because despite having the support of President Ronald Reagan, Bush had managed to lose the Iowa Caucus and only just narrowly won the New Hampshire primary by pledging a "kinder and gentler nation" and smearing Dole as a tax raiser. In office, he dispensed with these cheap lies and sought to establish a new world order with America as a hyperpower, and he also raised taxes (despite pledging "read my lips - no new taxes"). Perhaps worse of all, during the campaign Bush had used every possibile photo opportunity to promote his own mobility, cruelly aware that Dole's war wounds preventing him from doing so as well. The day after his withdrawal from the race, Dole was gripped by a shattering epiphany, blaming himself for his defeat by "not being whole".
Still, Robert Dole picked himself up very quickly and soldiered on as old soldiers do. Only a few short months later, Quayle discovered that he was afflicted by blood disorder known as phlebitis, forcing him to withdraw from the upcoming presidential race. By then Dole had acted on his final election campaign pledge, to get George Bush from "stop lying about my record". That record had been set straight, and Dole looked comfortably on course for victory in 1992. It would be the last, and greatest mission of the World War Two Generation.
In 2688 AUC the Ethiopian City of Addis Ababa fell to the East African Roman forces of the Legatus Legionis Badoglio.
Government ReshuffleEmperor Haille Selassie had fled the country three days before, clearing the way for the Ethiopian Empire to be formally annexed on May 7. Then on May 9, Caesar Emmanuel III was proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia (the countries of Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somaliland being merged into a single colony known as Roman East Africa (Africa Orientale Roma, or AOR).
Rome would taste a rare military success that had been conspiciously absent in recent years; "Emperor! Emperor! Salute the Emperor!" ("Imperatore! Imperatore! Salute Imperatore!") chanted the crowd when the Caesar, in full military uniform, showed himself on the balcony in the Palazzo Venezia.
Whilst Caesar maintained a dignified silence, General Mussolini unwisely did not, acting in what some might describe as a more flamboyant Latin manner (pictured top left) bordering on self-congratulatory exuberance. So when victory was announced by the General the Roman population reacted with jubilant abandon.
"People of Rome, people of the world, peace has been restored".From the balcony, the General proclaimed: "During the thirty centuries of our history, Rome has known many solemn and memorable moments -- this is unquestionably one of the most solemn, the most memorable. People of Rome, people of the world, peace has been restored". The crowds would not let him go - ten times they recalled the General to the balcony and cheered and waved while the boys of youth organizations sang the newly composed "Hymn of the Empire" (Inno dell'impero).
Caesar was less impressed with the General's victory, achieved frankly through the use of overwhelming force and also the cowardly use of mustard gas. Now observing some potential for confusion over who was actually "Il Duce" (the Leader), Caesar ordered that the General and his mistress, Clara Petacci were to be crucified and then hung upside down in the Palazzo Venezia (pictured right).
Whilst the remainder of the Romans were rejoicing, Haile Selassie was constructing a memorable letter of protest to stir up the Celts who would soon wage war with the Romans ~ "We have decided to bring to an end the most unequal, most unjust, most barbarous war of our age, and have chosen the road to exile in order that our people will not be exterminated and in order to consecrate ourselves wholly and in peace to the preservation of our empire's independence ... we now demand that [the Celtic allies] should decide not to recognize territorial extensions, or the exercise of an assumed sovereignty".
In 1945, on this day low flying American and British bombers released thousands of white doves over the City of Tokyo.
Peace breaks outAfter several days of behind-the-scenes negotiations the Gozenkaigi (Japanese leadership) decided, in principle, to accept generous proposals for conditional surrender. John Nance Garner had only recently entered the White House following the sudden demise of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The new President was the son of a former Confederate cavalry trooper, famously described by the British journalist Alistair Cooke as "the last public man linking America of the Civil War and America of the Nuclear Age". Garner had the gift of perspective resulting from a genuine insight into long-term history. Japan was ready to surrender, and there was absolutely no need to be a damn-fool and usher in apocalyptic weapons to bring the war to a speedy conclusion; best to set up a beacon of liberty to whom the post-war nations would rally.
In 1941, on this day Soviet troops in Poland began advancing on the final pockets of German resistance inside Warsaw.
In 2015, on this day the United Nations General Assembly convened an emergency session to debate the matter of who should replace the UK on the UN Security Council; that same day the new official Scottish Republic government website RepScot.gov.sco went online for the first time.
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In 1984, the last remnants of the Red Army's Alaska invasion force pulled out of U.S. territory in grave disarray; halfway around the world, Chinese forces captured the Siberian industrial center Magadan and bombed the Soviet Pacific naval fleet headquarters at Vladivostok.
On this day in 2009, civil war broke out in the former Soviet republic of Georgia as Russian-backed dissidents tried to topple the government of president Mikhail Saakashvilli.
On this day in 1982, a leading US wrestling magazine printed an article concerning Terry Funk's eight-month-long absence from the NWA following his defeat by Tommy Rich at the first Great American Bash. The article's main headline posed the question 'Has Funk Lost The Will To Fight?' and quoted an anonymous source in Funk's camp as hinting the Texan roughneck might retire.
In 1999, King Arthur II of Great Britain orders Scotland Yard to find Prime Minister Merl Myrddin, 'and spare no expense.' The worried monarch sees victory, so tantalizingly close just days ago, start to slip from his grasp. His queen, the lady Gwen Rivers Pendrake, tells him, 'Do not concern yourself, my liege. You have capable men in charge of all your affairs. Sir Lance will prosecute the war, and Scotland Yard will find your prime minister. Let us relax and let them do their jobs.' Arthur wearily agrees, sending word to Sir Lance that he will be in Wales if he is needed.
In 1891, Lt. Governor Arnold Morgan of Missouri receives the news that he is about to be promoted; he takes the oath of office and then orders a day of mourning across the state for the late governor, Silas Trent. He also reduces Missouri's cooperation in the siege of Kansas, which causes Colonel Theodore Monteith, who has been charged by the Secretary of War with ensuring the success of this endeavor, to send Major Mark Wainwright back to Missouri to convince the new governor to back the military more fully.
In 1986, after an initially strong bid by Cleveland, Ohio, the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame was awarded to Los Angeles, California. I mean, come on - Cleveland?!?
In 1985, Chelsea Perkins and Debra Morris find out from the family in a farm house they pass that they have been sent back in time 20 years. Miss Morris is confident that the Council of Wisdom will be able to send them back to their proper time, and she and Chelsea set off for London. She is puzzled as to why it happened, though; they are both confident that neither of them flubbed the transportation spell.
In 1915, Dr. Argus McCloud and his small team of volunteers find that the neural neutralizers he had devised are beginning to lose their effectiveness. The team takes their shuttle off the Kainku world before they begin to break down, and the doctor works on refining his device. 'There's got to be a way to make it last,' he told his troubled crew.
In 1821, Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of France, King of Spain, Protector of the Germanies and the Netherlands and ruler of Poland, dies. His ten-year-old son Napoleon Francois Joseph Charles Bonaparte becomes nominal ruler of France's vast domain; the real power, however, will lie for years with his father's feared Prime Minister, Klemens von Metternich.
In 2008, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) began operation as a particle accelerator and collider located at CERN, near Geneva, Switzerland. Funded and built in collaboration with over two thousand physicists from thirty-four countries, universities and laboratories, the LHC is became the world's largest and highest-energy particle accelerator.
Conditions that have not existed since the time of the big Bang were created when the Europeans fired up their LHC. A large quantum fluctuation occured, resulting in a New Big Bang as the LHC created a new Universe which expanded into another dimension.
In 1985, First Lady Nancy Reagan cancels President Ronald Reagan's trip to the Bitburg War Cemetery in Germany. Although the visit had been scheduled to show support for Germany, Mrs. Reagan thinks that it might be seen by the President's opponents as a pro-Nazi gesture. While mildly criticized by conservatives in America and Germany, the cancellation is given virtually no coverage at all.
In 1961, America launched its best astronaut, John Glenn, into space, making him the first American to leave the earth. Some had speculated that Glenn might not be the first, but public and political pressures forced NASA to put him up. Glenn was overshadowed by the later astronauts, though, especially Alan Shephard, whose heat shield nearly failed during reentry.
In 12-13-2-7-2, the Sioux chief Tantanka Yotanka left Oueztecan territory in an effort to prevent retaliations against his people because of his military victory at the Montana. He joined with the Kree people to the north and blended in with them for a few years before the call of his own nation forced him and his warriors to the south again.
In 1862, overwhelming French force swept through the Puebla de Los Angeles, and the Mexicans under Benito Juarez were forced to bow to French authority again. Mexico became nothing more than a French vassal state for the next century, when revolutionaries were finally able to cast off the French yoke.
In 1852, the Communist Party newspaper Truth started publication in New Hampshire. It had a circulation of 200 people with its first issue; today, it reaches almost 200 million, and delivers the officially sanctioned news to the population of the Soviet States of America.
In 1821, Napoleon Buonaparte, the Italian Emperor who very nearly conquered all of Europe, died in exile in his home of Corsica. The rest of Europe breathed a sigh of relief at the passing of The Little Roman. The Italian nation honored him with a tomb in the Forum, where Italians still flock to see his remains and dream of the empire that was.
In 1626, on this day Dutch explorer Peter Minuit arrives in New Netherland aboard the See Meeuw.
Nieuw-Nederland foundedover the course of the next three centuries, Nieuw-Nederland would develop side-by-side with the United States.
The two nations had grown up alongside one another as Europeans colonized North America. The English threatened to eliminate the Dutch from their holdings of New Amsterdam when four frigates occupied the harbor. Director-General Peter Stuyvesant, after considering ceding the land in hopes of retaking it, decided to head off a Second Anglo-Dutch War and refused. After firing on the city, the frigates were rebuffed and returned to England empty-handed.
Since that time, New Amsterdam quickly expanded. Jews ousted from Brazil as Portugal retook Dutch conquests flooded into the city, and immigrants from all over the world were accepted. The economy flourished as pelts were harvested from the upper Hudson and established shipping. When the twin states of New England and Great Virginia declared independence from Britain, the Dutch granted support first financially and then through its impressive navy. When Napoleon conquered the Netherlands in Europe, Neiu Nederlands announced its own independence.
Relations between Neiu Nederlanders and Americans were amicable. They were particularly close with New England due to ties in shipping and manufacturing, although relations were at times strained while the United States to the south determining water rights of Lake Erie. When New England broke off trade with the US over slavery, the Nederlanders maintained a lucrative neutrality. The sudden surge of trade brought about a new golden age, which led to a great deal of corruption that responded in a powerful Progressive Movement, headed by the young Theodoor van Rosevelt.
Rosevelt was part of the wealthy and politically influential family that had begun with Claes Maartenszen van Rosevelt, who purchased a large farm on Manhattan Island that would translate into enormous wealth as the city grew. Theodoor was born in 1858 and struggled through his childhood suffering from asthma. He overcame the disease by determination and exercise with seeming limitless energy, features that would define his life. After his education, Theodoor traveled extensively to the American West as well as Dutch holdings in the Caribbean and South America. He returned and entered civil service, soon becoming Director of the Navy where he built a canal through Panama and led the Great White Fleet on its tour around the world. By 1910, he was elected President.
When war erupted in Europe, Rosevelt hoped to join quickly and use the impressive New Dutch fleet, but business was too good trading through the neutral Netherlands. Despite his extensive campaigning, it wasn't until the Americans threatened Germany that he finally gained the agreement of shipping interests who disapproved of attacks by uboats. In 1917, unrestricted submarine warfare resumed, and a joint declaration of war was announced. Thanks to Rosevelt's anticipation, New Dutch troops joined the front almost immediately.
An article from the multi-author American Mini-states thread.
In 2012, on this day the blockbuster movie Marvel's The Avengers premiered worldwide with Johnny Depp the surprise casting choice for the role of Tony Stark, genius, billionaire, playboy, and philanthropist with a mechanical suit of armor.
Premiere of Marvel's The Avengers
by Ed & Andrew BeaneInsurance issues had forced Robert Downey, Jr. to forced to withdraw and an opportunity was created for Depp to reportray Stark in a more eccentric caricature.
But the negative consequence of this choice was that he was unavailable for the shooting of Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides. Film makers Rob Marshall and Jerry Bruckheimer turned to British actor Russell Brand who redefined the role of Captain Jack Sparrow.
In 1872, on this day the twenty-ninth President of the United States, Alexander M. Palmer was born in White Haven, Pennsylvania.
Alexander M. Palmer
29th President of the United StatesHe rose to national prominence serving as the fiftieth Attorney General, winning a great deal of public support for the organization of a series of high profile raids on Galleanist anarchists. And within the Justice Department he established a General Intelligence Division that soon became a storehouse of information about radicals in America.
But he exercised his own judgement in rejecting GID's flimsy evidence of plans for an attempted overthrow of the U.S. government on May Day 1920. Instead he fired the hot-headed and unbalanced principal officer J. Edgar Hoover. Fate intervened when President Wilson was assassinated less than six weeks after he resigned the office to seek the Democratic nomination.
With the country in turmoil, his staunch law enforcement credentials enabled him to defeat his main party rival James Cox. And he persuaded his other chief opponent William McAdoo to serve as his running mate. This pairing provided the regional balance to the ticket that defeated Warren Harding in the General election.
In 1982, on this day the Argentinian Air Force operating outside the Total Exclusion Zone accidentally shot down a USAF Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker, one of the aerial refueling military aircraft provided on loan to the British Government for the duration of the Falklands Conflict.
Blushes of the Loaner Arranger
By Ed and Matthew DattilloThe arrangement of the loaners was the result of a compromise in the transatlantic alliance, because the original request was for aircraft carriers of the US Navy. To ensure that refusal did not offend, President Reagan observed that such a requisition was practically infeasible because the Royal Navy simply did not have the trained servicemen to operate the carriers. Ironically, the ARA fleet command vessel General Belgrano was the reconditioned USS Phoenix (CL-46), an ageing light cruiser which had survived the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and was even now being operated by Argentine sailors.
The truth was that the Organization of American States (OAS) was head-quartered in Washington minutes away from the White House where Reagan was speaking on the hot phone to Thatcher. During these critical years of the Cold War, the United States simply could not afford to take the risk of such unilateral action and be stigmatized as an imperialist bullyclub in the eyes of the South American nations.
In the event, the transatlanic alliance was deeply humiliated anyway. With defeat looming, Thatcher threatened to deploy nuclear weapons in the South Atlantic, and Reagan was forced to tell her to stand down. The "Falklands Factor" cost the Conservatives the 1983 election, and Michael Foot was elected on a unilateral nuclear disarmament platform. One of his earliest decisions was to close the American nuclear base at Greenham Common.
The only real victor of the Falklands Conflict was the President of Argentina, the "Iron Lady" Eva Perón.
In 1991, on this day the forty-first President of the United States, George H.W. Bush was transferred by helicopter to Bethesda Naval Hospital after experiencing a shortness of breath, chest tightness, and a general feeling of fatigue while jogging at Camp David.
A Heartbeat AwayPhysicians immediately detected a rapid irregular heartbeat leading to a diagnosis that Bush was suffering from atrial fibrillation due to hyperthyroidism. When the prescription of digitalis, procainamide, and Coumadin failed to arrest the arrhythmia, an electrical shock was administered. Tragically, Bush went into cardiac arrest during this cardioversion, dying only minutes later.
Under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, Dan Quayle was already the acting president. And now a different kind of shock was about to reverberate across the nation.
In 2015, on this day Alex Salmond was officially inaugurated as the first president of the Scottish Republic.
In 1898, one of the Greater Zionist Resistance's greatest leaders, Golda Meir, was born in Kiev. When the G.Z.R. took control of the Pale, her family joined its ranks, and she worked her way up its diplomatic ranks to lead the Russian Zionist Parliament before its destruction at the hands of the German Reich in 1948
In 1999, Emperor Pierre of the Central European Empire, hearing the bombs fall on his fair capitol, puts in a desperate call to his agent in King Arthur's court, instructing the spy to, "do whatever is necessary, but stop this bombing!" Prime Minister Merl Myrddin, hearing the successful news from the front, decides to celebrate with a drink at his favorite London pub, where he unfortunately lets his guard down.A drug is slipped into his beer, and he disappears into the night. At the same time, labor leaders across western Europe are casting down the CEE's puppet governments and proclaiming themselves leaders of the nations; this has the unfortunate side effect of reducing their support for Sir Lance du Lac's drive to Switzerland. The great knight is forced to slow down his advance and deal with the demands from his allies about respecting their sovereign territory.
In 1891, the judges at General Anthony Franklin's court-martial return a verdict of guilty against him, strip him of his rank, and sentence him to life in prison. Franklin is stunned, and weeps openly in the court, while his attorney, Captain David Danforth, vows to appeal directly to the president himself. Unfortunately for the former general, President Harrison is quite pleased with the verdict, and instructs his secretary to ignore Captain Danforth's requests for an appointment. Meanwhile, Governor Silas Trent of Missouri, touring the state to shore up his support after Franklin's Massacre, is set upon by a drunken mob in Jasper County, and killed for his support of the federal troops.
In 2005, Chelsea Perkins and Debra Morris begin the spell to transport them back to the Great Tree. Unfortunately for them, the spell that had been cast on Chelsea by Patience Redding warps their teleportation spell into something else; when they exit the small vortex, they find themselves on an English country road.
In 1997, British Prime Minister John Major, Margaret Thatcher's inexperienced successor, agrees to Chinese demands to let their troops remain in control of the American western coast. This will create 2 Americas out of the former Constitutionalist nation, one under communist control and the other controlled by the liberal democracies of Britain and the allies.
In 1941, one of communism's most strident voices, Comrade George F. Will, was born in Champaign, Illinois Soviet. Will became a newspaper editorialist in the 1970?s, expounding on the rightness of America's war in Chile while supplying speeches to some of the Hall administration?s staff. He continues to blur the line between government and media even today.
In 1989, Oliver North was convicted of several counts of governmental malfeasance for his role in the Iran-Contra affair. Fortunate to have escaped charges of treason, North served 11 years before being paroled. After getting out, he attempted to enter the still-thriving world of conservative talk radio, but was so infamous that no station would touch him.
In 1975, real estate tycoon Moses Horwitz died in his Long Island home. Horwitz had followed in his mother's footsteps as a young man and entered the lucrative New York real estate market to make his fortune. As a hobby, he supported his brothers' vaudeville routine for many years before it became evident that their Stooge act was going nowhere.
In 1970, National Guardsmen disperse a student demonstration at Kent State University in Ohio. Although one hothead in the troops had fired at a demonstrator who threw a rock at him, officers were able to keep a rein on the situation and prevent bloodshed. The student organizers of the protest, also wishing to avoid violence, cooperated after the brief initial confrontation and got the crowd to go back to their dorms.
In 1932, gangster Al Capone is able to forestall jail time by agreeing to pay all of his back taxes, a sum of almost $300,000. The government accepts the fine, much to the chagrin of the Treasury agents who have brought Capone in. Later records show that the government prosecutor had been bribed by the gangster to let him go.
In 1930, Congress found the arguments of a thousand economists more compelling than those of the president, and defeated the protectionist Smoot-Hawley tariff act. Without the protections that would have been granted by the act, cheap foreign goods continued to flood the American market and the depression worsened.
In 1814, former Italian Emperor Napoleon Buonaparte commenced his exile to Corsica. His old home had many sympathizers, and he was soon able to escape and attempt to regain his throne, but the allied northern Europeans forces soon captured him again and sent him back to his exile in Corsica. Broken and bitter, he died alone on the Mediterranean island.
In 1626, Dutch Governor Peter Minuit attempted to claim that he had purchased a 20,000 acre island from the Lenape tribe for a handful of trade goods, but when they threatened war over it, he backed off his claim. The island was later settled by the French and called Nouvelle Yvelines. It became the hub of the greater expansion of French influence in the Atlantic northeast.
In 1898, on this day Democrat Senator Golda Meyerson was born in Kiev.
Sen Golda Meyerson (D-WI)She would later note in her autobiography that her earliest memories were of her father Moshe Mabovitch, a carpenter boarding up the front door in response to rumors of an imminent pogrom. He left to find work in New York City in 1903, the rest of the family moved to Pinsk to join her mother's family. She had two sisters, Sheyna and Tzipke, as well as five other siblings who died in childhood. She was especially close to Sheyna. In 1905, Moshe moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin in search of higher-paying work and found employment in the workshops of the local railroad yard. The following year, he had saved up enough money to bring his family to the United States.
At fourteen, she studied at North Division High School and worked part-time. Her mother wanted her to leave school and marry, but she rebelled. She bought a train ticket to Denver, Colorado, and went to live with her married sister, Sheyna Korngold. The Korngolds held intellectual evenings at their home, where Meir was exposed to debates on Zionism, literature, women's suffrage, trade unionism, and more. In her autobiography, she wrote: "To the extent that my own future convictions were shaped and given form... those talk-filled nights in Denver played a considerable role". In Denver, she also met Morris Meyerson, a sign painter, whom she later married on December 24, 1917. Despute many marital difficulties, the couple remained in Milwaukee where Golda eventually went into politics. In 1946 she saw off challenges from Robert LaFolette Jr. and Joseph McCarthy to win a seat in the U.S. Senate. Two years later her husband would be tragically killed during the brief attempt to establish a Jewish Homeland in Palestine.
During her tenure in the House, Golda would emerge as a key national advocate of the Jewish refugees who had settled in four locations in Alaska (Baranof Island and the Mat-Su Valley. Skagway, Petersburg and Seward) as a result of the 1940 Slattery Report. Just two weeks after Kristallnacht, the United States Department of the Interior under Secretary Harold L. Ickes had proposed the use of Alaska as a "haven for Jewish refugees from Germany and other areas in Europe where the Jews are subjected to oppressive restrictions". In recognition of the powerful support of this lonely voice in American politics, Meyerson had been chosen to represent the United States at the opening of the "Safety Pin", a tall building erected for the 1977 World Fair held in Sitka and a source of pride for its inhabitants. This event was marred by protests from the native Tlingit Alaska Natives partly as a result of the controversy when Meyerson had commented that "There is no such thing as a Tlingit Alaskan people"1, a bold statement intended to emphasise their integration rather than independence.
At the time of her death, representatives had been unable to persuade the US Government to extend statehood beyond the fifty year lifespan set down by Ickes with reversion of territory due to occur in 1992. Anti-semitic cynics in the House had labelled the failure of her campaign as "The Fall of the Third Temple".
This article is a part of the Sitka thread.
In 1861, President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy met with Mr. Ebenezer Scrooge of the City of London that Friday and arrived at a mutual defense agreement.
The Scrooge ContributionScrooge's terms were set out admirably. The precision left no doubts in the minds of Davis' Cabinet that their new republic would get the support of the United Kingdom, Even better, the British Prime Minister, Lord Palmerston, had initiated the approach to the South and sent to Richmond his "gray eminence" and master banker.
Even so, the term required for Britiain's support of the South was a condition the South had never thought of making a factor of its struggle for independence. Over first discussion of the matter, Vice President Stephens and four members of the Confederate Cabinet (Toombs, Mallory, Memminger and Reagan) advised against it.
"If our survival as a nation came about at such a price to the Union we have left", said Toombs "we would be forever stand condemned before our erstwhile countrymen".
"Mr. Toombs", said Jefferson Davis. "we shall have to meet many challenges in the coming war, and not a few of the advantages we shall seek will bring severe criticism from the North. It is better that our Southern States have the North's condemnation of our agreements with allies than that the South do without such necessary aid".
The commotion raised in Parliament was considerable when news of the Scrooge Assignment was debated on the floor of the Commons. "Sensible men know the Scrooge Proposal is nothing but piracy, plain and simple", wrote Charles Francis Adams, the American Minister to the Court of St. James. "Its theft from the common fund of our Great Republic is justified on no reason or moral obligation. It is the bald assertion that England gets California if the confederate states get their independence".
In 1813, on this day as Napoleon reflected on how yesterday's battle at Lutzen had been an indecisive tactical victory when he needed another Austerlitz to end this war before Austria entered it, he kept coming back to Ney's inept handling of his corps. He had allowed himself to be surprised by the allied attack. Ney had been one of the few heroes of the retreat from Moscow. Napoleon had given him a large corps to command as a reward. It now seemed clear that Ney was still too shattered from the previous winter's fighting to be trusted with such a command. Ney was still popular with the army so he was bumped to command of a division de marche of Young Guards which while a nominal demotion would not have been seen as such by the army.
Napoleon's Command Change by Scott PalterThis is turn forced Napoleon to confront his complex feelings towards Nicholas Davout, probably his best marshal, but under a cloud since the later stages of the retreat from Moscow. Napoleon had dumped Davout on a secondary command at Hamburg. Now needs must and he summoned him back to the main army. Davout was at best a difficult personality but his actions at Austerlitz, Auerstadt and Wagram had repeatedly worked to Napoleon's advantage.
His command change paid off at Bautzen on the 20th. Had Ney been in command of the flanking column he might well have been distracted by the initial clashes and lost focus on the main mission, which was to surround and capture the Allied army before it could retreat behind its superior cavalry. Instead Davout ruthlessly left a corps to mask and fight the Russo-Prussian flank guards while leading the rest of his force to victory. He punched clear around the Allied armies to complete the encirclement at Hochkirch Meanwhile Ney's climatic assault under cover of the Grand Battery shattered the Allied front. A substantial portion of the Allied cavalry got away. The two monarchs, their courts, the infantry, the artillery, the baggage train and all their supplies were captured.
This effectively ended this stage of the war. Alexander I ransomed himself at the cost of abandoning all the Russian territorial gains of 1812-13 including the Grand Duchy of Warsaw. He also returned his French and allied prisoners. His higher nobility showed their distaste for both Alexander's crusade into Central Europe and its expensive failure by deposing and assassinating him during the Christmas festivities in St. Petersburg. His brother Nicholas assumed the throne and was quite content to remove Russia from European affairs as long as the French did not further trouble his realm.
The Prussian monarch died in captivity and his realm was split between the Grand Duchy of Warsaw and the Kingdom of Westphalia. The city of Berlin was made a principality with Ney as nominal monarch. A similar principality was created at Danzig for Davout.
Left with no continental allies the British chose to end an endless war. They used Wellington's victory at Vittoria to end the war on a note of triumph before a massive new round of French reinforcements could turn the tide back. Napoleon was content to wash his hands of his Spanish ulcer. Spain was partitioned with the French keeping an expanded Catalonia and Aragon. Europe's peace was frigid but it was peace.
In 2009, on this day former U.S. President and football star Jack Kemp died at the age of 73, after suffering from cancer, his spokeswoman announced.
Legacy of a Bleeding Heart Convervative by Eric LippsHe was a tax-cutting Republican who described himself as a "bleeding-heart conservative".
He represented western New York for nine terms in Congress, then ran for President in 1988, defeating Democrat Richard Gephardt to succeed President Gary Hart, after Hart's bid to win his party's nomination for a second term collapsed amid the Donna Rice scandal.
In office, his greatest success was Operation Desert Wind, the Kuwait intervention following Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein's attempted military conquest of that country. Immediately after Desert Wind, his popularity stood at 91 percent in the Harris and Gallup polls.
Unfortunately, his domestic policies would bring those numbers crashing to earth. A long-time advocate of the gold standard, President Kemp would use his post-Desert Wind clout to push through Congress a measure legalizing private ownership of gold and authorizing limited gold coinage. However, the Sinclair scandal, in which wealthy Connecticut investor James Sinclair exploited fears of war in the wake of the overthrow of Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev by military hard-0liners to run the price of gold to unprecedented heights after first purchasing huge amounts of the metal with the aid of an international syndicate, would tarnish Kemp badly. Sinclair had been a prominent Kemp backer in 1988, and critics would suggest (though never prove) that the President had made a deal with the goldbug in exchange for his support. It would not help that another of the President's favorite ideas, the "urban enterprise zones" he had induced Congress to authorize as an alternative to welfare, proved far less effective than Kemp had promised. By 1992, he would be struggling to hold onto his office.
It was a struggle he would lose. That November, Georgia senator Sam Nunn would defeat President Kemp at the polls.
In 1994, the ex-President would run for the U.S. Senate, defeating three-term incumbent Daniel Patrick Moynihan in one of the closest senatorial races in U.S. history. He was re-elected in 2000 and again in 2006.
His spokeswoman Bona Park said he died at his home in Washington.
Political colleagues of both parties paid tribute to him, with fellow ex-President Edward M. Kennedy, himself diagnosed with terminal cancer, calling him "one of the nation's most distinguished public servants".
Former President John McCain said: "Jack will be remembered for his significant contributions to the Reagan revolution and his steadfast dedication to conservative principles during his long and distinguished career in public service".
His greatest legacy may stem from his years as a congressman from Buffalo, especially 1978, when his argument for sharp tax cuts to promote economic growth became Republican party policy, which has endured to this day.
In 1984, Alaska National Guard units and US Marine Corps regular troops started eliminating the last remaining Soviet beachhead on the Alaskan coastline.
© Today in Alternate History, 2013-. All characters appearing in this work are fictitious. Any resemblance to real persons, living or dead, is purely coincidental.