In 330 BC, the Macedonian Army crossed the border into neighboroughing Scythia in pursuit of the defeated Persian Emperor Darius III.
King Alexander III of Macedon perishes in his Scythian MisadventureIt was a deadly trap set by Darius who knew fulll well that the overbold Alexander (pictured) would encounter precisely the same difficulties that made Scythia so problematic for his own army. Because the Macedonian's limited mounted forces were quite simply no match for a fully mobile nation. Rather they were unable to pull off the same flanking movements that they had in sedentary near eastern battles, and their highly trained Macedonian and Greek foot soldiers were massacred by the Scythians.
Darius then returned and set about raising a fresh Army to retake Persia, however his authority had been broken at Gaugamela. Instead he was succeeded by a relative, the prominent satrap of Bactria known as Bessus who would rule as Artaxerxes V, King of Asia.