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Today in Alternate History

This Day in Alternate History Blog








feature items. items have been published since the last newsletter was sent out and are re-publications. For ease of browsing, drilldowns are available on both Era and Author. Mainstream and/or opinion pieces are labelled Non-AH Content.

10th to 16th Centuries

In the first millennium, the island of Ireland was a complex patchwork of rival kingdoms. Among the most powerful were Munster in the southwest, Leinster in the east, and the lands of the Ui Neill in the north. Vikings added their own influence to the lot with settlements at Limerick, Cork, and Dublin, their largest. Even though the Irish kingdoms constantly attempted to raid and outmaneuver one another with alliances and counter-alliances, there was a titular High King that held the highest authority in Ireland. In AD 980, Mael Sechnaill, King of Meath (the most southerly Ui Neill) maintained a delicate balance as High King, securing his place by halting the growth of Viking power in the Battle of Tara.
 April 23, 1014 - "Brian Boru" Secures High Kingship at Clontarf Jeff Provine In 1542 on this day Princess Mary Stuart becomes Mary, Queen of Scots.<span class=EditorText>This post was written by Dirk Puehl the highly recommended author of <a href=>#onthisday #history</a> Google+ posts.</span>Robert Dudley, "King of Scotland" Dirk Puehl In 1577 on this day the ill-fated Drake Expedition leaves England. The privateer Francis Drake had been a useful asset to the English Crown through his lifelong (however short) wrath against the Spanish. As was a young sailor, he was captured with his cousin Sir John Hawkins by the Spanish, only to escape and supposedly vow revenge.  Ill-fated "Drake" Expedition Leaves England Jeff Provine
On this day, in 1658, the Ming Government finally acted against the scientists who continued to conduct unregulated experiments into the element now known as Uranium, among many other topics, issues, and themes, by banning all such experimentation without regulation. This situation had finally come about hot on the heals of leading rocket scientist Wan Hus last experiment which 
caused the destruction of the town of Jinan."China" Acts David Atwell In 1542 on this day Mary, Queen of Scots (also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland) was born in the Linlithgow Palace. Birth of "Mary", Queen of Scots Jeff Provine In 1542 on this day Mary, Queen of Scotland, England and France, was born in Linlithgow Palace.Birth of Mary, Queen of "Scotland, France & England" Robbie Taylor
In 1120 William Adelin, the seventeen year old legitimate son and heir of Henry I of England, narrowly survived the sinking of the White Ship in the English Channel.William Adelin survives "White Ship" Disaster Steve Payne In 1307 on this day the Knights Templar gain a new crusade. Since the fall of Jerusalem to Saladin in 1187, the Knights Templar had been in decline. They fought on through the crusades in the losing fight to keep Christian kings in the Holy Land. Knights Templar Gain "New Crusade" Jeff Provine In 1600 Charles the Last, the <a href=>final British monarch</a> was born in Dunfermline Palace. He ascended to the throne of the United Kingdom of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales in 1625.Birth of "Charles the Last" Robbie Taylor
In 1307 in a legendary act that seemed almost Biblical in magnitude, Albrecht Gessler, the Austrian bailiff of the Alpine town of Altdorf, set his hat atop a pole in the center of town.  "William Tell" Misses Jeff Provine In 1603 on this day Sir Walter Raleigh was acquitted. Upon the death of Queen Elizabeth in 1603, many Catholics saw the time of transition when Scottish James I took the English throne as the chance to overthrow the Protestant government. Sir Walter Raleigh "Acquitted" Jeff Provine In 1397 on this day Pope Nicholas V was born Tommaso Parentucell in Sarzana, Republic of Genoa. The Pontificate of Nicholas saw the breaking of the siege of Constantinople. Birth of "Pope Nicholas V" Jeff Provine

The long dynastic struggle had taught the peerage to adopt a studied neutrality at Bosworth Field, but even so they thronged with great enthusiasm to the Welshmans coronation. After all he had provided a solid guarantee of property in exchange for loyalty not to mention the lock-in of backdating the beginning of his reign to a day before the battle in order to flush out any traitors.Sunday, 30th October, 1485 - the Coronation of "Henry Tudor" Steve Payne In 1470 on this day future king of England, Edward V (Plantagenet of York) was born at Westminister Abbey (the Royal House had ended in 1399 as the dynasty splintered into two competing cadet branches: The House of Lancaster and The House of York).Birth of King "Edward V" Jackie Speel In 1517 after a study of social structure, lawyer and university professor Martin Luther sent his famous letter to Frederick III, Elector of Saxony, as well as publishing a copy on the door of the town hall with ninety-five questions critiquing the current political and economic system in the Holy Roman Empire called "Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Rule". Martin Luther Nails "Ninety-Five Theses" Jeff Provine
In 1400 on this day Geoffrey Chaucer was freed from prison and composes "Croun Retorned" ("Crown Returned"). Chaucer Freed from Prison and Composes "Croun Retorned" Jeff Provine In 1486 on this day the Battle of Bosworth Field was fought near Ambion Hill in Leicestershire.Bosworth, 1486, Part 3: "Fall of the Plantagenet Dynasty" Jackie Speel In 1448 John Hunyadi leads the Hungarian-Wallachian army to triumphant victory at the Second Battle of Kosovo. <span class=EditorText>A compressed version of <a href=>The Purpose Mantle</a> published on the Alt History Wikia.</span>Ottoman Reversal at "Kosovo Field" Steve Payne
In 1066 on this day the Anglo-Saxon Advisory Council known as the Witenagemot proclaimed that the new King of England would be a fifteen year old youth, Edgar the Ætheling, noble son of the royal house of Cerdic of Wessex."Noble Son" Jackie Speel By 1066 the English Crown had been tossed into the air, and three would-be kings fought to catch it. Edward the Confessor had no son to take over the throne, which meant that less legitimate bids for the throne could now be heard.  Battle of Hastings begins the "Anglo-Norman War" Jeff Provine In 1055 the King of Wales Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and King of England Edward the Confessor reached agreement that would ensure peace between their two nations.Welsh Forces Overwhelm Normans at "Hastings" Jeff Provine
In 1487 Henry VIIs fragile grip on power was prized away by leading Yorkists who unseated him in favour of the pretender Lambert Simnel. The infant Tudor regime had survived just two years since Bosworth Field.16 June 1487 - Glorious Yorkist Victory at "Stoke Field" Steve Payne <b>It is October 13, 1307,</b> and King Philip VI of France has ordered the arrest of the leaders of the Knights Templar. This military order had fought fiercely during the Crusades, but now both the King and Pope Clement V were accusing them of heresy and fraud. In fact, they were mostly guilty of having leant large sums of money to the King, who was now eager to get rid of them, with the Popes support. The "unluckiest day" of the year Jackie Rose In 1537 on this day Edward Tudor was born in his mothers room inside Hampton Court Palace, the son of King Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour. At the age of nine he was crowned King and ruled for forty-eight years during which England pressed ahead with Protestant reform.12 October 1537 - Birth of "Edward VI" of England Steve Payne

In 1471 on this day King Christian I secured Danish Rule over Kalmar Union. The Kalmar Union had formed thanks to the complicated intermarriages of Scandinavian royalty. Margret I of Denmark married Haakon VI of Norway (son of Magnus IV of Sweden and Norway), meaning that their son Olav had direct claim to the crown of Denmark and Norway as well as a strong bid for Sweden.  Christian I Secures Danish Rule over "Kalmar Union" Jeff Provine Ironside's Republic: "Part 1" Heterodus Penryth In 1002 smallpox was introduced to the New World. The discovery of the New World by Europeans came as something of an accident in 985. Viking Bjarni Herjolfsson was sailing to Greenland to visit his father after wintering in Iceland when bad weather caught his ship, blowing it far off course to a land covered in trees. Smallpox Introduced to the "New World" Jeff Provine
In 1529 on this day the Ottomans stormed the city of Vienna. The army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent arrived at the gates of Vienna September 27, 1529. Three years before, Suleiman had smashed the army of King Louis II of Hungary, conquering much of the land. Following the momentum, he raised an enlarged army and pressed toward Vienna and the Austrians.  Ottomans Storm "Vienna" Jeff Provine In 1452 on this day the youngest son of the Duke of York and Cecily Neville was born at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire. Like his father, he was named Richard Plantagenet and in time he also became a pretender to the throne of England.Bosworth, 1486, Part 1: "Lord of the North" Jackie Speel In 1452 on this day Richard Plantagenet was born in Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire. He had only reigned for two short years as King of England when he confronted an ultimate test of legitimacy at Bosworth Field."Richard III" Affirms Legitimacy at Bosworth Field Jeff Provine
In 1425 the last King of England Richard Plantagenet was born on this day in Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire.2nd October, 1425 - Birth of "Richard III", Last King of England Steve Payne In 1066 an international array of English, Welsh and Norman forces converged upon the coastal town of Hastings in East Sussex. William the Conqueror and his invading army set sail from the mouth of the Somme River. Harold Godwinson and the English Army raced south from their victory over the Norwegians at Stamford Bridge. And last, but by no means least, King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and his forces marched from North Wales.Welsh Forces Overwhelm Normans at "Hastings" Steve Payne The Teutonic Order stood at a threshold of a new golden age as Europe changed around them from the High Middle Ages. The monastic knights had been formed in 1190 to protect pilgrims and fought valiantly through the Crusades.  Prince Casimir Felled at "Battle of Plowce" Jeff Provine
In 1529 on this day the army of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent arrived at the gates of Vienna. Ottomans Besiege "Vienna" Jeff Provine In 1575 Queen Elizabeth of England sits upon the throne in her new Palace of London, celebrating the end of the great citys reconstruction."Aztec" Invasion of Elizabethen England Robbie Taylor In 1486 on this day in Westminster, Edward IV King of England finally passed away after a miserable decade of sharp decline. Although hugely popular, he was widely known by his detractors as "the Rose of Rouen" in propaganda poems of the period in reference to his birthplace, and also the white rose which had became a dominant icon for the Yorkist dynasty.Bosworth, 1486, Part 2: "The Rose of Rouen" Jackie Speel

In 1254 on this day the incomparable merchant traveller Marco Polo was born in the Republic of Venice. His epic twenty-four year long journey to Asia and back is recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo, c. 1300). Of course most notably he met a <a href=>Flores Man</a> and brought Sun Tzus military treatise the Art of War back to Europe.September 15, 1254 - Birth of "Marco Polo" Steve Payne In 1504 on this day Da Vincis David was unveiled in Florence.Da Vinci's "David" unveiled in Florence Jeff Provine In 1695 on this day Henry Every (pictured), captain of the Fancy (formerly Charles II), and his crew of pirates raided the Indian Ocean after mutinying against Englands ally, Spain. "Piracy" Ends India-UK Relations Jeff Provine
The irrepressible Henry Stafford was born into a noble family descended from Thomas of Woodstock, the fifth son of Edward III. His mother was Margaret Beaufort, daughter of Edmund Beaufort, Second Duke of Somerset and cousin of that other better-known Margaret Beaufort who was mother of Henry Tudor.4th September 1455 - "Henry Stafford" born Steve Payne Because his brother Edward IV had withheld the restoration of the vast <a href=,_2nd_Duke_of_Buckingham#The_Bohun_Estate>Bohun inheritance</a> for so long, the newly crowned Richard III wasted no time in doing so, not even awaiting Parliamentary approval for fear that it would enrage his chief ally Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham.26th August, 1483 - "Bohun inheritance" restored to the Duke of Buckingham Steve Payne In 1485 the usurper Richard III was killed by his nephew, Edward V, the rightful King of England with an assist from his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York.Restoration of "King Edward V" Jackie Speel
In 1485 the destruction of King Richard III at Bosworth Field leaves Henry Tudor with the largest army in England. Young "King Edward V" crowned after Bosworth Field Robbie Taylor In 1682 the man-o-war HMS Gloucester ran aground on the Lemon and Oar sandbank located some miles off the coast of Yarmouth. "James Stuart", Duke of York dies with the sinking of the Gloucester Steve Payne In 1521 death had surrounded the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan for two years since the arrival of the Spanish under Hernan Cortes. "Aztecs" Ambush Conquistadors Jeff Provine
In 1492 the Jews are expelled from Spain when the Alhambra Decree takes effect.  "Alhambra Decree" takes effect Jeff Provine In 1214 the French King Philippe-Auguste fell at a critical point in the bloody battle of Bouvines when it had begun to look like he might actually prevail. Unfortunately for the French he like many of his knights was un-horsed by English foot-soldiers using a pike with a hook, then helplessly dispatched on the marshy ground (despite the best efforts of his bodyguard [1]). Glorious Angevin-Welf Victory at "Bouvines" Steve Payne In 1456 fulfilling his sworn oath to eat his dinner that evening in the fallen fortress city of Belgrade, Sultan Mehmet II expressed admiration for his vanquished foe, John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary "Although he was my enemy I feel grief over his death, because the world has never seen such a man"."John Hunyadi" falls: Doom bell rings for Western Europe Steve Payne

In 1587 on this day one hundred seventeen settlers returned to North Americas Roanoke Island where a previous English settlement had been evacuated by invitation of Sir Francis Drake because its relief fleet was late with supplies. "Roanoke" Reestablished North Jeff Provine In 1553 Lady Jane Grey faced a showdown with her first cousin Mary Tudor just nine days into her rule. But she won out and after a troubling eight months in which her claim to the English throne seemed questionable at best, Jane Grey was formally crowned queen in Westminster Abbey. The troubled early days of "Good Queen Jane" Steve Payne In 1543 in a tragedy for the nation, the Queen of England Mary Boleyn died aged just forty-three.<span class=EditorText>An installment from the <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread</span>Happy Endings "Part 15a" Death of Henry VIII's Second Wife: Mary Boleyn Jackie Rose
After the rediscovery of the Code of Justinian in 1070 established new admiration for law rather than "might makes right," Europeans began a new focus on studying law, philosophy, and theology to prove who was in the right. The first was founded in Bologna, Italy, where international students hired scholars to teach them how to be protected by (and from) city law. Guilds and kings began their own universities in Italy, France, and England, collections of like-minded individuals where the brightest minds were collected to train and teach. In 1303, concerned that intellectuals were gaining an upper-hand on theology, Pope Boniface VIII founded a university of his own, Sapienza - Universitá di Roma, the University of Rome for Wisdom. Just before its release, the papal bull was edited to read "for the good of all men," perhaps in an effort to ensure universal church authority, a point he had battled over with Phillip IV of France and led the king to march on Rome. April 20, 1303 - "Sapienza University" Leads to Industrial Revolution Jeff Provine In 1174 thirteen year old Baldwin of the House of Anjou became King of Jerusalem, with Raymond III, Count of Tripoli as regent and William of Tyre as chancellor. But his reign as Baldwin IV might have been cut very short if not for William, because four years earlier he discovered that a young member of the royal household had contracted Hansens Disease.The long reign of "Baldwin the Magnificent" Steve Payne In 1460 the War of the Roses reached a decision when forces led by nobles loyal to the King triumphed over the invading army of the Yorkist pretender Edward, Earl of March.War of the Roses ends in the Lancastrians Triumph at "Northampton" Steve Payne
In 1068 having sufficiently recovered from two exhausting, major campaigns fought in the space of a single year Harold Godwinson was ready to launch the Saxon counter-invasion of Normandy.Normans defeated at Hastings by "Harold the Magnificent" Steve Payne In 1302 in the French campaign to subdue Flanders, the decisive battle was fought on a muddy field near the town of Courtrai. The Supremacy of "Cavalry" Assured Jeff Provine In 1066 after both arch-rivals perished in their titanic struggle on the south-east coast a series of profound changes were quickly set in train across the British Isles and also on the continent. This was because of the complexities of succession; Williams eldest son Robert was only fifteen whereas Edgar Ætheling had already been technically King Edgar II for a few weeks as the Witan had elected him.William of Normandy joins "Harold Godwinson" in death Jackie Speel
Murder was the Case, "Part 7" Chris Oakley In 1483 on this day evidence is produced in Parliament that young Edward V, son of the late King Edward IV of England, is the product of a bigamous marriage, and therefore illegitimate and ineligible for the crown, as is his brother Richard. King "Edward V" of England Robbie Taylor In 1306 the Bruces larger Army emerged victorious from a bloody battle fought before dawn at Methven, west of Perth.
Glorious Scottish Victory at "Methven" Steve Payne

In 1579 after pillaging the once-untouchable Pacific towns and sea lanes of the Spanish, Francis Drake and his fleet led by the Golden Hind continued northward. Drake Founds "New Albion" Jeff Provine In 1215 King John of England, having met with rebellious barons who objected to what they perceived as his abuse of his powers as their feudal lord and who had confronted him with armed force to demand that he sign a charter guaranteeing them various rights and limiting the authority of the crown over the feudal aristocracy and the church, arranged for the barons to be set upon and slain at the meeting at which the King was supposed to have signed the charter.King John refuses to sign the "Magna Carta" Eric Lipps In 1381 angered at being denied a meeting with King Richard II, Wat Tyler (pictured) and his army of peasants took London, burning it to the ground.Wat Tyler's "army of peasants" burn London to the ground Robbie Taylor
In 1456 on this day Lady Anne Neville (pictured) was born at Warwick Castle. Lady Anne Neville, "Kingmaker's Daughter" Jackie Speel In 1494 the newly discovered lands outside Europe were split vertically between Portugal and Spain (at the time, the unified Crowns of Castile and Aragon) according to a treaty signed at Tordesillas by Pope Alexander VI,
Ferdinand II of Aragon, Isabella I of Castile, John, Prince of Asturias and
John II of Portugal.Treaty of "Tordesillas" divides Americas North-South Steve Payne In 1042 on this day Harthacnut the Viking Avoids "Poisoning". As the Age of Vikings continued in Europe, Cnut the Great carved out a powerful North Sea Empire, ruling over Denmark, Norway, and England, as well as some territory in Sweden, by his death in 1035.  Due to the vast size of his realm, he could not control it directly and instead depended upon a series of councils and princes to rule in his stead.  In Norway, he installed his son Svein as king with his first wife Aelfgifu of Northampton as regent.  Their rule proved oppressive with heavy taxes, and the Norwegians rebelled, replacing him with Magnus the Good, illegitimate son of Olaf, the king Cnut had defeated. Harthacnut the Viking Avoids "Poisoning" Jeff Provine
In 1296 on this day Edmund III, warrior-king of England passed away aged fifty-one.England fragments after the Sad Death of "Edward Longshanks" Steve Payne In 1540 on this day  De Soto Discovers Gold North of Florida. Conquistador Hernando de Soto had been born to a poverty-stricken area of Spain and left to seek his fortune, which he did in the New World.  He sailed to Panama in 1514 and accompanied Pizarro on the expedition to conquer the Inca in 1532.  "De Soto" Discovers Gold North of Florida Jeff Provine It is 1560  and King Francois the Seconds wife, Queen Mary, has just given birth to their son, the future King Francois III of France. <span class=EditorText>An installment from the <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread</span>"Mary", Queen of France Jackie Rose
In 1539 in Florida, Conquistador Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with six hundred soldiers with the goal of finding gold. "De Soto" Discovers Gold North of Florida Jeff Provine In 1451 Jeanne dArc Takes Vows. Against the backdrop of the bitter Hundred Years War, Saint Joan of Arc completed her novitiate and took her first vows to become a nun. "Jeanne d'Arc" Takes Vows Jeff Provine In 1453 on this date, according to the Julian Calendar, the Tenth Crusade, led by united Christian forces directly under Pope Nicholas V gathered from a wide alliance of Venetian, German, and Genoese troops, broke the Ottoman siege at Constantinople. "Constantinople Siege Raised" Jeff Provine

In 1588 one hundred and thirty ships carrying thirty thousand men set sail for the English Channel, it will take two whole days for the entire armada just to leave the port of Lisbon. "England Expects": the Spanish Conquest of England, 1588 Steve Payne In 1521 on this day Martin Luther was assassinated. The success of the printing press hastened the spread ideas, particularly theology. Lawyer-turned-monk Martin Luther published Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences in 1517, which became known as The Ninety-Five Theses. It formed a list of what he felt was wrong with Church practices, particularly the selling of indulgences: writs of forgiveness for sins that could be purchased (even in advance of committing a sin).  "Martin Luther" Assassinated Jeff Provine In 1487 the long and painful process of restoring the Plantagenet York line began with the coronation of ten-year-old Lambert Simnel as Edward VI in Christ Church Cathedral in Dublin. Coronation of "Edward VI" establishes the Simnel line Steve Payne
In 1455 Yorkists usurpers defeated King Henry VI at the Battle of St. Albans, but the King escaped and rallied his supporters to drive Duke Richard of York away in the Battle of London. "House of Lancaster" resurgent Robbie Taylor In 1499 on this day the teenage Catherine of Aragon was married by proxy to Arthur, Prince of Wales who at twelve years old was a year her junior.Catherine of Aragon marries Arthur Tudor A "True and Loving Husband" Steve Payne In 1498 the Portuguese attempt at securing a trade route to the wealth of India failed as the expeditionary fleet under Vasco da Gama was caught in an Arab ambush. It had been the climax of a plan concocted two generations before when Prince Henry the Navigator established his navigation school. "Da Gama" Expedition Ambushed Jeff Provine
It was a grim morning of August 4th, 1265 for Simon de Montfort. Having been slowed down at Evesham because of the King his ragtag rebel army now had been trapped in a vulnerable position with their backs to a river, blocking any escape. A royal army had formed at the crest of a nearby hill, outnumbering them greatly. And if that wasnt enough, a severe thunderstorm had begun, as if God Himself was angry on this day. Simon knew he had no realistic chances of survival. His English troops were tired and scared, and the several thousand Welshmen his ally Llywelyn ap Gruffydd had sent him were demoralized, unwilling to die for an English squabble. With their backs to the wall, Simon delivered a speech that nevertheless rallied his army to fighting spirit once more. And he had a plan. Leading with cavalry, followed by the men-at-arms, sergeants, and levied militias on foot, themselves followed by the unreliable Welshmen, Simon planned to drive a wedge through the solid royal lines and escape, if not flank and rout the royal army altogether. The Bloody Disaster at "Evesham" secures Welsh Independence Fanged Hummingbird In 1514 on this day Edward Stafford, third duke of Buckingham and wealthiest man in the Kingdom, was crowned in Westminster Abbey. England is "besmear'd" in hell Steve Payne In 1538 on this day Anne Mourgan became the fourth wife of Henry VIII<sup>th</sup> of England just a year after the tragic death of Jane Seymour. The Seventh Wife of "Henry VIII", redux Steve Payne
In 1265 on this most awful of days the scheming French nobleman Simon de Montford was <a hef=>crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey</a>. "De Montfort" Seizes English Throne Steve Payne In 1264 on this day at the Battle of Lewes Henry III of England was captured and forced to sign the Mise of Lewes, making Simon de Montfort (son of a French crusader who became Earl of Leicester through his mothers bloodline) the de facto ruler of England. "De Montfort"'s Parliament Ends English Monarchy Jeff Provine In 711 the Gothic kingdom of Hispania had fallen to a time of all but straightforward civil war. King Wittiza had become sole ruler upon the death of his father, Egica, in AD 702. "Visigoths" Notice Umayyad Invasion Jeff Provine

In 1500 on this day the Portuguese navigator Pedro Àlvares Cabral made landfall in Porto Seguro, a natural harbour and "Safe Port" on the north-east coast of present-day Brazil."Brazil" the Portuguese Canada Steve Payne Rather than ruling a coherent kingdom, the House of Habsburg had assembled a complex federation all over Europe through marriages, conquests, and inheritance, ultimately culminating in Charles to become heir of the Holy Roman Empire as a Habsburg, the Empire of Spain through his mother Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, as well as ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands. Charles grew up in his holdings in the Netherlands until he became King of Spain to rule alongside his mother in 1516. He brought with him his Flemish entourage as advisors, sowing distrust between himself and local nobles and the bourgeoisie that had grown up following the Reconquista. "Rebellion in Toledo" Begins the End of Charles I in Castile Jeff Provine In 1471 due to a timely command decision made by  John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford the Lancastrians under the Earl of Warwick somehow managed to prevail at the Battle of Barnet. The historical significance of this event was that the Yorkist attempt to restore Edward IV had ended in failure, and the so-called "Cousins War" was finally brought to a bloody end.Oxford saves the Lancastrians at the "Battle of Barnet" Steve Payne
April 13, 1657 not even a decade after the Parliamentarians of England convicted their king of treason in trial and executed Charles I by beheading, a new crown was offered to Oliver Cromwell, the man who had third signed the previous kings death warrant. The English had fought for years in a brutal Civil War that killed nearly 100,000 over the question of kingship. Even as the hated Charles I was beheaded, clergyman Phillip Henry wrote the crowd gave a cry "as I never heard before and desire I may never hear again". England wanted a king. "Oliver Cromwell" Recommends Henry for the Crown Jeff Provine In 1295 the first known translated copy of Sun Tzus military treatise Art of War was brought into Europe by the Italian Explorer Marco Polo. And as the perverse fates would have it he returned from China to find his home city of Venice at war with the Republic of Genoa.Marco Polo brings back the "Art of War" Steve Payne In 1522 on this day the lady Anne Boleyn has just returned from Paris .. and she enchants Henry VIII. She gladly agrees to be his mistress and is soon the mother of a bouncing baby girl named Elizabeth."Mistress Boleyn" returns from Paris Jackie Rose
In 1625 days after a spontaneous beginning to the experiment, Bacon announced by letter to the King his findings on the ability to preserve raw meat through freezing. "Bacon" Announces Preservation of Meat by Freezing Jeff Provine In 1483 King Edward IV of England recovered from a debilitating illness that had threatened to kill him.King "Edward IV" Survives Robbie Taylor On April 7, 1506 Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta was born in the Kingdom of Navarre at the Castle of Xavier, from which he would later take his surname.  He was the youngest son of Juan de Jasso, an adviser to the king, and wealthy heiress Doña Maria de Azpilcueta y Aznárez.  When Francis was six, Spain invaded Navarre.  After his fathers death, Franciss older brothers worked alongside French conspirators hoping to repel the Spanish invaders.  When the plot failed, the family was stripped of its land holdings and their castle was reduced to a residence with all of its battlements destroyed."Francis Xavier" Vows an Eternal Portuguese Empire Jeff Provine
In 1199 King Richard I of England dies from an infected arrow-wound."King Geoffrey I" overthrows his brother John Robbie Taylor In 1242 Novgorod was under heavy pressure from both the East and the West. In the east the Golden Horde loomed, while Novgorod was repeatedly invaded from the west during the Northern Crusades. And when the Teutonic Order invaded once again Alexander, elected Prince of Novgorod, marched against them with a substantial army. Meeting the Teutonic forces, led by Hermann the Prince-Bishop of Dorpat, near the bank of Lake Peipus. Hoping to draw the knights into a disadvantageous position Alexander withdrew across the narrow strait connecting Lake Peipus with neighbouring Lake Pskovskoe.Alexander Nevsky defeated at the "Battle of Lake Peipus" Marko Bosscher In 1502 Arthur Tudor Survives. After decades of civil war, Englands Wars of the Roses came to an end with Henry Tudor defeating Richard III at Bosworth Field in 1485.  Henry, now Henry VII, dedicated his reign to securing the throne of England.  He married Elizabeth of York, tying together the Lancasters and the Yorks to end the matter of supremacy and defeated anyone who continued to rebel.  Henry also encouraged support from Wales by claiming Welsh descent.  Most of all, he sought European recognition, which would legitimize his rule despite his being a questionable heir.  Treaties ended war with France and called for Perpetual Peace with Scotland.  He looked to the newly unified kingdoms of Castile and Aragon whose Ferdinand and Isabella were successfully driving the Moors out of Spain.  In 1489, England and the Catholic Nobles signed the Treaty of Medina del Campo.  Ferdinand and Isabellas youngest daughter, Catherine, would marry Henrys oldest son, Arthur. April 2, 1502 - "Arthur Tudor" Survives Jeff Provine

In 1453 on this day the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II began the two-month, unsuccessful siege of Constantinople. Constantinople Siege Raised by "Tenth Crusade" Jeff Provine In 1492 the Alhambra Decree Begins Scheme to Send Jews West. The Reconquista of Spain completed with the Battle of Granada on January 2, 1492.  Muslims had controlled the Iberian Peninsula after their invasion in 711, but gradually the Christian kingdoms of the north expanded southward.  In-fighting slowed the Christian efforts, but the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1469 united two of the largest kingdoms to a single force.  In twenty years of warfare, they pushed back the Muslims to Granada, where they affirmed rule of the peninsula fully in the hands of Christian monarchs. "Alhambra Decree" Begins Scheme to Send Jews West Jeff Provine In 1461 in the midst of a snowstorm in the North of England, the Wars of the Roses would come to an end as the House of Lancaster reaffirmed itself to its royal position gained by the overthrow of Richard II. House of Lancaster Victorious at "Towton" Jeff Provine
In 1746 Captain Francis ONeill earnt honor in both victory and defeat after the Highland Uprising.Captain Francis O'Neill: "Hard Man" Jackie Rose In 1409 Violent Council of Pisa Begins. March 25, 1409 - Violent "Council of Pisa" Begins Jeff Provine In 1214 AUC on this day the Brittanic fanatic known as Patriclus died while trying to incite the Celts of Eire to rebel against Rome.The Day Of "Patriclus" Robbie Taylor
In 1465 the love-struck Edward IVs ill-conceived plans to marry Elizabeth Woodville were ruined by the Earl of Warwick <a href=>summoning Eleanor Butler to court</a>. Called "the most beautiful woman in the Island of Britain" with "heavy-lidded eyes like those of a dragon" Woodville was many years older than the King, a commoner and also a widow. Since the Norman Conquest only one King had married one of his subjects. Also no such consort had been crowned Queen (John had divorced his wife, Isabel of Gloucester, shortly after his accession, and she was never crowned; Henry IVs first wife Mary de Bohun died before he became King)."Warwick" the Queen Maker Steve Payne In 1490 Bayazed II, receiving some additional information on how the printing press has benefited government among the Franks and decided that it would be a useful tool for the Bureaucracy in Constantinople, however the uelma and his own religious feelings frowned on its use as pertained to the language of the Holy Quran. With some thought the solution was clear, and after a closed-door meeting with the Patriarch it was agreed that the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople would obtain a Greek-language press and lease its use to the Topkapi Palace (the bulk of the civil servants were ex-Christians who knew said language).The Ottoman "Printing Press" H. Torrance Griffin In 1649 like most revolutions, the French Fronde began because of money. Participation in the Thirty Years War had helped France weaken its Hapsburg competitors by supporting Sweden against Austria and then going into direct war with Spain in 1635, but the coffers of the king had run dry and all the fighting had not delivered France any greater power over Europe.  Parlement Rejects "Peace of Rueil" Jeff Provine
In 1566 on this day David Rizzio defended Mary, Queen of Scots. David Rizzio Defends "Mary, Queen of Scots" Jeff Provine In 1284 with the conquest of the castle at Rhuddlan after a long siege and the reuniting of northern Wales, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd made his announcement atop its keep that Wales shall be heretofore joined under a king.  "Statute of Rhuddlan" Creates Welsh Kingdom Jeff Provine By 1371 Robert Stewart who ruled Scotland after a fashion would neither accept David as a king nor an even stronger English dominance in his homeland.<span class=EditorText>This post was written by Dirk Puehl the highly recommended author of <a href=>#onthisday #history</a> Google+ posts.</span>"Robert Stewart" invokes the Auld Alliance Dirk Puehl

In 1292 during his return toward Europe after extensive travels across Asia and fantastic adventures among the court of Kublai Khan, famed explorer Marco Polo stopped with the Khans wedding party in the port of Singapore to resupply. Marco Polo Meets a "Flores Man" Jeff Provine In 1457 on this day the ill-fated usurper Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond was born in Pembroke Castle, Wales.Birth of usurper "Henry Tudor", Earl of Richmond Jackie Speel It is Feb. 13 1542 and Henry VIII has just executed Katherine Howard. Following his bad experiences with his alternating Catholic and Protestant wives, Henry VIII decides to try his luck with a nice Jewish girl.The Seventh Wife of "Henry VIII" Jackie Rose
In 1503 as the Second Italian War raged, Louis XIIs knights pressed southward into Naples to confirm the kings claim to the Italian throne. Firearms Drawn at "Barletta" Jeff Provine In 1484 a powerful opening speech of Parliament was delivered by the Bishop of Lincoln John Russell. But the survival of the revolutionary ideas that he set out on this fateful day was entirely due to the narrow-fought Yorkist victory which raged at Bosworth Field some eighteen months later. <span class=EditorText>An article from the <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread</span> Happy Endings "Part 50": England finds its Lost Coin at Bosworth Field Steve Payne in 1399 John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, died without heirs. Despite the rumours that he was actually the son of a Ghent butcher, he was a full-blooded member of the Royal House of Plantagenet being the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. "John of Gaunt", duke of Lancaster, dies without heirs Robbie Taylor
Owen Tudor led the Lancastrian forces to victory at the Battle of Mortimers Cross against Edward, Earl of March. Owen Tudor wins out in "Rise of the Welsh Ascendency" Steve Payne Bursting into the chapel at their family home in Northamptonshire Anthony and John Woodville prevent the womanising Edward IV from fooling their beloved sister Elizabeth into a secret wedding, a cheap trick he had used countless times before. <span class=EditorText>An instalment from <a href=>Happy Endings</a> conceived by Jackie Rose.</span> Happy Endings "Part 48": The King's Mistress Steve Payne In 1457 Henry Tudor, pretender to the throne of Richard III, was born in Pembroke, Wales. Pretender "Henry Tudor" born Robbie Taylor
In 1547 after serving as Holy Roman Emperor for almost thirty years, Henry Tudor died at the Palace of Whitehall. He was fifty-five years old.Death of "Henry Tudor" Holy Roman Emperor Jeff Provine In 1452 on this day Princess Joanna was born in Lisbon, Portugal. Her political marriage to King Richard III of England would unite the royal house of Aviz with the Plantagenet dynasty. But it almost didnt happen because of a prophetic vision she had before the Battle of Bosworth Field. She had dreamt that her suitor would perish and decided therefore that in good conscience could only promise to marry him only after the Battle. Blessed "Joan" of Portugal Steve Payne In 1450 the Duke of Suffolks cunning plan to get the English crown into his own family bore fruition with the marriage of his seven-year old ward Lady Margaret Beaufort to his only son John de la Pole. <span class=EditorText>An article from the <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread</span> Happy Endings "Part 47": The Most Despised Man In England Steve Payne

In 1265 the end of the English kings came at the hand Simon de Montfort (son of a French crusader who became Earl of Leicester through his mothers bloodline), who himself married Henry IIIs sister Eleanor in secret. "De Montfort's" Parliament Ends English Monarchy Jeff Provine In 1463 on this day Frederick the Wise, Holy Roman Emperor was born in Torgau, Saxony. Birth of "Frederick the Wise", Holy Roman Emperor Jeff Provine After alternating six times between Catholic and Protestant wives, with ensuing religious uproar each time, Henry VIII divorced Katherine Parr and announced that this time he was going to marry a nice Jewish girl.The Seventh Wife of "Henry VIII" Jackie Rose
In 1066 on this day Harold Godwinson was crowned King of England. Battle of Hastings begins the "Anglo-Norman War" Jeff Provine In 1170 on this day Bishop Thomas Becket was arrested in Canterbury Cathedral. Bishop "Thomas Becket" Arrested Jeff Provine In 1530 on this day  the Lost Expedition of Francisco Pizarro y Gonzalez left Panama. Pizarro's "Lost Expedition" Leaves Panama Jeff Provine
In 1166 on this day John, King of England was born in Beaumont Palace, Oxford. As a result of catastrophic mistakes during his reign he would be the last ruling member of the House of Plantagenet.Birth of "King John" Eric Lipps In 1487 Elizabeth of York is crowned Queen of England in a ceremony also attended by her beloved husband, Manuel the Fortunate who became the future King Manuel I of Portugal after his nephew Alonso died in an accident.Coronation of "Elizabeth of York" Steve Payne In 1499 on this day Perkin Warbeck the impostor claiming to be Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York was drawn on a hurdle from the Tower to Tyburn, London, where he read out a confession and then hanged.Execution of "Richard of Shrewsbury", 1st Duke of York Steve Payne
In 1292 on this day John Balliol became King of Scotland. Triumph of the "Empty Coat" Steve Payne 'Tis The East: "Part 3" Chris Oakley In 1527 on this day the Spanish Explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first European to set eyes upon the <a href=>great American city of Cahokia</a> [1]. Mississippians welcome "de Vaca" Party Steve Payne

In 1520 on this day Henry VIIIs illegitimate daughter Elizabeth was born to his long-time lover Bessie Blount. Birth of "Elizabeth Tailboys", Queen of England Steve Payne In 1272 on this day an assassin broke into Edward Longshanks bed chamber in Acre and killed him with a poisoned blade (because of the fall of Jerusalem, Acre was now the centre of the Christian state in the Holy Land). Sad Death of "Edward Longshanks" Steve Payne It is November 1578 and the intercessory prayers of the Protestant Cathedral of York have spared the life of Edward Fawkes. God willing, the incomparable proctor and advocate of the the consistory court slowly recovered from the mysterious life-illness that had threatened his life throughout the long autumn months. <span class=EditorText>An article from our <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread.</span>Happy Endings "Part 41": Miracle of York Steve Payne
In 1501 on this day Catherine of Aragon met Arthur Tudor. They would later marry, making England a vibrant Tudor monarchy for a new century, protected by an unbreakable bond with their Catholic allies in Spain."Catherine of Aragon" Queen of England meets Arthur Tudor Steve Payne In 1422 upon the death of Charles le Bien-Aimé and in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes, the English monarch Henry of Monmouth inherited the throne of France, a defeated nation he had recently conquered with his spectacular victories at Dreux/Chartres and Meaux."Henry V" first dual King of England and France Steve Payne In 1066 on this day the Anglo-Saxon Ruling Council known as the Witenagemot proclaimed Edgar the Ætheling King of England.Witenagemot proclaims "Edgar the Ætheling" King of England Steve Payne
In 2003 despite a brief flirtation with the idea of <a href=>electing a movie star as their governor again</a>, Californians come to their senses and vote Democrat Cruz Bustamante into the governors mansion in a special recall election. Governor "Bustamante" elected Robbie Taylor In 1417 humanists Poggio Bracciolini and Niccoló de Niccoli paid the ultimate price for their redoubtable efforts to recover classical Latin manuscripts.Bracciolini discovers "On the Nature of Things" Steve Payne In 1399 Henry Bolingbroke is captured and executed by supporters of the true English king, Richard II (pictured), as he attempts to usurp the throne.The Usurper "Henry Bolingbroke" is executed Robbie Taylor
In 1066 William, Duke of Normandy, lands on the coast of England only to be met by the forces of Tostig Godwine and King Harald of Norway - the English King, Harold Godwine, had masterfully negotiated an alliance with the pair and used them as a buffer against Williams initial assault. Normans repulsed at "Hastings" Robbie Taylor In  the year of our lord 1491 the anti-pope Henry Tudor was born in Greenwich Palace, the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York.Birth of Anti-Pope "Henry Tudor" Steve Payne In 1509 movements in the North Anatolian Fault triggered a series of natural disasters comprising an Earthquake, tsunami and after-shocks in the Sea of Marmara that completely destroyed the great city of Constantinople.The Lesser Judgment Day destroys "Constantinople" Steve Payne

In 1513 the Scottish Victory at Flodden Field set the stage for the Bishop of Romes annulment of Henry VIIIs marriage to Catherine Aragon [1]. Ironically, news of the English defeat reached Henry when he was serving in France. Contained in a letter from Catherine,  it was her shameless manner of communication that was the beginning of the tension in this marriage [2].Unexpected consequences of the Scottish Victory at "Flodden Fields" Steve Payne It is 1485 and King Richard III of Lancaster is facing the Welsh invader, Henry Tudor, on Bosworth Field. The tide is starting to turn in Henrys favor .. when Henrys stepfather, Lord Thomas Stanley, surprises everyone by switching to Richards side, in one of his most dramatic  shows of disloyalty. <span class=EditorText>An article from our <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread devised by Jackie Rose.</span>Happy Endings "Part 30": Bosworth Field Jackie Rose In 1571 on this day Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk and Mary Queen of the Scots were crowned and anointed in Westminster Abbey.Coronation of Thomas and Mary after "Ridolfi Plot" succeeds Steve Payne
In 1485 the Wars of the Roses had caused battles for thirty years as the House of York and the House of Lancaster made attempts whenever possible to seize the throne of England. The House of York had gained dominant control, though upheavals continued, such as the revolt led by the Duke of Buckingham in an effort to put forth Henry Tudor as king. "Richard III" Affirms Legitimacy at Bosworth Field Jeff Provine In 1063 the Treaty of Snowdownia was signed by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, Earl Harold and his brother Tostig.Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, Hero of "the Battle of Hastings" Steve Payne In 1040 Macbeth Duke of Moray falls at Bothganowan, near Elgin. <span class=EditorText>An article from the <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread.</span> "Macbeth" falls in the tragedy at Bothganowan Steve Payne
It is 1499 and two young men in their mid 20s have been sentenced to death for trying to escape the Tower of London. <span class=EditorText>An article from our <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread devised by Jackie Rose.</span>Richard IV and Edward VI find a very "happy ending" Jackie Rose In 1001 on this day Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor married  Zoe, second daughter of Emperor Constantine VIII.<span class=EditorText>An article from our <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread devised by Jackie Rose.</span>Happy Endings "Part 28" Wedding at Ravenna re-unites East & West Roman Empires Steve Payne A Great "Christian Nation" Anon
A different fate for the "Templars" Anon In 1327 James Douglas led a daring raid into Weardale, defeating the invading English army and killing the newly crowned Edward III on his first campaign.Battle of "Stanhope Park" ends War of Scottish Independence Steve Payne In 1320 on this day the declaration of Scottish independence was made in the form of a letter submitted to Pope John XXII.Scottish Independence declared at "Arbroath Abbey" Steve Payne

In 1286 with no surviving children and the line of succession vulnerable to usurpation, Alexander III King of Scots made an irresponsible choice regarding his personal safety. He disregarded the cautious advice of his privy council and instead set out on a dangerous night journey to visit the pregnant queen at Kinghorn in Fife because it was her birthday the next day.<span class=EditorText>An article from our <a href=>Happy Endings</a> thread devised by Jackie Rose.</span>Happy Endings "Part 27": A Lucky Escape for Our Greatest Monarch Steve Payne A Differerent "Kingdom of Italy" Anon In 1591 on this day in the courtyard of the Uglich Fortress, Maria Nagaya frustrated a brutal assassination attempt by Boris Godunovs agents to kill her ten year son Dmitry Ivanovich, the Tsarevich of Russia.
"Boris Godunov" Caught as Anti-Ivanovich Conspiracy Foiled Steve Payne
What if "Charles I" had won the English Civil War? Anon What if "England" had been led by the Levelers? Anon In 1314 Philip the Fair King of France died in Fontainebleau aged forty-six. Unexpected difficulties in the succession would soon end the rule of the House of Capet caused by a <a href=>usurpation by Edward II</a> King of England who was married to his only daughter Isabella."Tour de Nesle" Affair Eric Oppen
In 1521 to the amazement of his crew Juan Ponce de León survives the return journey to Havana, Cuba. The Secret of "Juan Ponce de León" Steve Payne In 1483 Richard Plantagenet accepts the petition of the citizens of London, nobles and commons who had asked the Lord Protector to assume the throne of England. <span class=EditorText>A variant of <a href=>Edward V of England</a> by Robbie Taylor.</span> Rise and Fall of "King Richard III" of England Jackie Rose In 1532 the future King of Scotland Robert Dudley was born on this day.Birth of "Robert Dudley", King of Scotland Dirk Puehl
The "Teutonic Knights": Republic and Empire John W. Braue, III In 1298 on this day the Livonian Order defeated the Residents of Riga and Grand Duchy of Lithuania on the banks of the Gauja River near the Turaida Castle.Livonian Order victorious at the "Battle of Turaida" Steve Payne In 1217 on this fateful day the forces of His Majesty Louis I King of England and France triumphed at the Second Battle of Lincoln.Plantagenet lose "Baron's War" Steve Payne

"Red Rose" Running Rampant Fearless Leader In 1568 on this day Mary, Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven Castle, a remote fortress located in the middle of a body of fresh water in Perth and Kinross.Happy Endings Part "22": The Escape from Loch Leven Castle Eric Oppen In 1385 demonstrating the indisputable charm that had rightfully
earned him the name "William the Courteous", the Duke of Austria gained the approval of the lords of lesser Poland to marry their eleven year
old monarch, Jadwiga.Happy Endings "Part 21": Jadwiga betrothed to William the Courteous, Duke of Austria Steve Payne
In 1509 on this day Arthur Tudor ascended the throne of England on the death of his father, Henry VII. But the country would experience a sharp diminution in status during his ill-fated reign.Ascension of "King Arthur II" Steve Payne In 1555 after eighteen long months of siege the Florentine-Imperial army withdrew from the Tuscan City State of Siena. Although it had been in existence for four centuries, its survival had become precarious ever since the beginning of the Italian War. When the Republic was defeated by the rival Duchy of Florence in alliance with the Spanish crown its future independence looked very bleak indeed.Siege of "Siena" Lifted Steve Payne In 1395 in a desperate battle fought on the banks of the Terek River in the North Caucasus, the forces of Tokhtamysh khan of the Blue Horde prevailed, saving the capital city, Sarai from falling to Timurs invading army. Golden Horde triumph at the "Terek River" Steve Payne
In 1388 at the Battle of Näfels, the Habsburgs crushed a heavily out-numbered force of the Glarus and their allies, the Old Swiss Confederation. Habsburg Victory at the "Battle of Nafels" Steve Payne In 1594 on this day Henry IXth, King of England was born Henry Frederick Stuart (eldest son of James I & VI) in Stirling Castle, Scotland.Birth of "Henry IX (The Great)", King of England Steve Payne In 1614 the first recorded interracial in the New World between the planter John Rolfe and the "Mother of the Confederation" Pocahontas took place in Jamestown, Virginia. Initially, Rolfe saw marriage to a daughter of the paramount chief of the then already relatively powerful Native Powhatan Confederation as a good idea to secure his expanding tobacco plantations. What agenda Pocahontas and her father, known as Chief Powhatan may have pursued originally is unclear, but the baptised and newly-wed Native Princess took her husband to a visit of the English mother country, accompanied by trusted Powhatan advisors. She met with King James I in England who almost had Rolfe executed for high treason for forming an alliance without royal consent and excluded him from the meetings on grounds of his lower social status. Pocahontas fell ill when the couple was about to return to Virginia, but finally recovered and returned to the New World in the spring of 1618. <span class=EditorText>This post was written by Dirk Puehl the highly recommended author of <a href=>#onthisday #history</a> Google+ posts.</span>Mother of the Confederation "Pocahontas" Dirk Puehl
In 1430 on this day the future wife of King Henry VI of England, Margaret of Anjou was born in Pont-a-Mousson, Lorraine.Birth of "Margaret of Anjou", Queen consort of England Steve Payne In 1496 on this day Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England and wife of Louis XII of France was born in Richmond Palace, Surrey. She and her brother (later Henry VIII), were close as children - in fact, he even named his daughter, the future Queen Mary I, after her.Birth of "Mary Tudor", Queen of France Steve Payne In 1473 on this day King James IV of Scotland was born at Stirling Castle, the son of James III and Margaret of Denmark.Birth of "James IV" of Scotland Steve Payne

In 1649 the Earl of Ormonde marched a combined force of English Royalists and Irish Confederates on Dublin, the last major foothold of parliamentary forces in Ireland. Ironically Ormonde himself had held Dublin two years prior when it was besieged by Irish Confederates, before abandoning it to English parliamentary forces.The "Fall of Ireland" (no Cromwellian Invasion) Marko Bosscher In 1152 on this day Frederick I Barbarossa was elected King of the Germans; he was crowned in the city of Aachen six days later.Triumph of the "Red Bearded" Crusader Steve Payne In 1244 Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr fell from the Tower of London, where he had been held hostage by Henry the Third."Gruffydd ap Llywelyn" falls from the Tower Marko Bosscher
In 1547 on this day Edward VI of England was crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.Coronation of "Edward VI", King of England Steve Payne In 1400 on this day deposed monarch Richard of Bordeaux escaped from Pontefract Castle where he had been imprisoned by the usurper Henry of Bolingbroke."Richard of Bordeaux" makes his bold escape Steve Payne Away all Boats: "Part 2" Chris Oakley
'Tis The East: "Part 2" Chris Oakley In 1393 King Charles VI of France was <a href=>killed when several dancers costumes caught fire</a> during a masquerade ball.Tragedy in the "House of Valois" Steve Payne In 1492 on this day a fishing boat north of the Canary Islands spotted a man clinging to a barrel in the midst of waves. They managed to him aboard, and, after several hours rest, the delirious man told his story, saying that the small fleet sent with the Italian Cristoforo Colombo had met with disaster. Survivor of "Columbus Expedition" Found Jeff Provine
In 1536 on this day Catherine of Aragon beloved wife to King Arthur II of England died at the Palace of Westminister. She was fifty years old.Death of "Catherine of Aragon" beloved wife to King Arthur II of England Steve Payne Happy Ending "Part 15" Henry VIII's Second Wife: Mary Boleyn Steve Payne In 1485 on this day Catherine of Aragon the Spanish Queen consort to King Arthur II of England was born in Madrid.Birth of "Catherine of Aragon" Queen of England Steve Payne

In 1565 on this day a huge Turkish Fleet 
quietly disembarked the forces of Vizier Lala Mustafa Pasha at a remote section of Malta [1]; the army then moved inland and seized the unprotected old capital Mdina.Knights Hospitaller vanquished at the "Great Siege of Malta" Steve Payne In 1227 on this day the Duke Swietopelk II of Pomerelia attempted to kill his arch rival, the High Duke of Poland and Prince of Sandomierz, Leszek the White (pictured)."Leszek the White" Survives Steve Payne In 1386 on this day a Georgian army under the command of King Bagrat V defeated the forces of Timur of Samarkand at the gates of the capital city, Tbilisi.The Triumph of "Bagrat the Great" Steve Payne
In 1183 on this day the <a href=>Genpei War</a> took an unexpected turn when a Minamoto force seized the Taira military base on Yashima, a small island off the coast of Shikoku. Glorious Minamoto victory at "Battle of Mizushima" Steve Payne In 1558 on this day Queen Mary I of England died and was succeeded by <a href=>Elizabeth Tailboys</a>, Henry VIIIs illegitimate daughter born to his long-time lover <a href=>Bessie Blount</a>. Elizabethan "Civil War" Era Begins Steve Payne In 1485 on this day John II, King of Portugal approved Christopher Columbuss plans to equip three sturdy ships, granting one years time to sail out into the Atlantic and search for a western route to the Orient, and return. Columbus leads "Flight to the Americas" Steve Payne
In 1315 an army under the command of Duke Leopold I of Austria narrowly survived a Swiss ambush in the Morgarten Pass. Ambush at the "Morgarten Pass" Steve Payne In 1444 on this day a mixed Papal army defeated a large Ottoman force near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. Glorious "Papal Victory" at Varna Steve Payne In 1330 the inexorable Hungarian march to the Black Sea continued with a hard-fought victory in the Carpathian Mountains. Charles I Robert survives "Wallachian ambush" Steve Payne
In 1313 on this day the forces of Frederick I of Austria triumphed at the Battle of Gamelsdorf.  Glorious Austrian Victory at "Gammelsdorf" Steve Payne In 1066 on this day King Harolds English Army stood poised on London bridge with the Viking and Norman invaders on either bank of the Thames.1066: the Battle of "London Bridge" Jackie Rose In 1214 on this day forces loyal to Trapezuntian emperor Alexios I (pictured) lifted the Siege of Sinope. Komnenos Brothers lift the "Siege of Sinope" Steve Payne

In 1268 on this day of triumph the inseparable Conradin and Frederick of Baden (pictured) led a victory march in Rome to celebrate their glorious victory at Tagliacozzo."Conradin and Frederick of Baden" celebrate victory at Tagliacozzo Steve Payne In 1086 on this day the forces of Alfonso VI King of León and Castile won a decisive victory fought in treacherous conditions over the Almoravid army at the Battle of az-Zallaqah ("slippery ground").Castilian Victory at the "Battle of the Slippery Ground" Steve Payne In 1081 on this day the Normans of southern Italy under Robert Guiscard, Duke of Apulia and Calabria were defeated at the gates of Dyrrhachium, the Byzantine capital of Illyria.Byzantine Victory at the "Battle of Dyrrhachium" Steve Payne
In 1346 on this day David II, King of Scotland signed the <a href=>Peace of Nevilles Cross</a> with his English counterpart Edward III.English and Scots sign the "Peace of Neville's Cross" Steve Payne In 1581 just when it appeared that science and magic were set to diverge, the English arch-conjuror John Dee (pictured) invented the scrying mirror.Arch-conjuror John Dee communicates with the angles using his "scrying mirror" Steve Payne In 1098 on this day the eight month Crusaders Siege of Antioch was finally relieved by a Muslim army from Mosul under the command of Kerbogha.Allah Willis IT!: "Muslim Army relieves Antioch" Steve Payne
In 1636 confirmation that the Swedes were a spent force after the <a href=>earlier battle of Nordlingen</a> was assured by the glorious victory of the combined Imperial-Saxon army at Wittstock.Swedes defeated at "Battle of Wittstock" Steve Payne In 1574 on this day the forces of Francisco de Valdez finally captured the rebellious city of Leiden, South Holland.Francisco de Valdez recaptures rebellious city of "Leiden" Steve Payne In 1187 following the Siege of Jerusalem, Saladin captured the Holy City after eighty-eight years of Crusader rule.Pope Gregory VIII issues decree calling for "Third Crusade" Steve Payne
In 1453 on this day Pope Nicholas II issued a decree calling for a crusade to recover Constantinople from the Ottoman Turks.Pope Nicholas II issues decree calling for "Tenth Crusade" Steve Payne In 1480 the future of Tatar rule over Russia was assured by a hard-fought Mongolian victory on the banks of the Ugra River.Tataro-Mongols victory at the "Battle of the Ugra River" Steve Payne In 1322 forces of the Duchy of Austria under the command of their Habsburg antiking "Frederick the Handsome" triumphed at the Battle of Mühldorf am Inn.Glorious Habsburg Victory at "Mühldorf am Inn" Steve Payne

In 1066 on this day an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada of Norway defeated an English army under King Harold Godwinson at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire.King Harold Godwinson killed at the "Battle of Stamford Bridge" Steve Payne In 1396 on this day the Danubian fortress of Nicopolis fell to an allied army of Hungarian, Wallachian, French, Burgundian, German and assorted troops (assisted by the Venetian navy)."Crusade of Nicopolis" ends in Triumph Steve Payne In 1236 on this day the Livonian Brothers of the Sword consolidated thirty years of conquests by crushing the pagan Samogitians at the Battle of Saule (trans. "Sun").Famous Livonian Victory at the "Battle of Saule" Steve Payne
In 1217 on this day the formation of the independent country of Estonia was assured by a decisive victory over the German crusading order the Sword Brethren.
Estonian Victory at the "Battle of St. Matthew's Day" Steve Payne In 1486 on this day Arthur Tudor future King of England (pictured) was born in the capital city of Winchester.
Birth of King "Arthur II" Steve Payne In 1356 on this day the French army of King John the Good caught up with the retreating English forces a few miles southwest of Poitiers. French Victory at the "Battle of Poitiers" Steve Payne
In 1462 on this day the royal and municipal armed forces of Piotr Dunins Polish Army were decisively beated by the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Świecino. Teutonic Knights triumph at the "Battle of Świecino" Steve Payne In 1180 on this day the incomparable samarai Ōba Kagechika was killed and his Taira clan forces crushed at a fierce battle fought in the Hakone Mountains. Early Decision in the "Jishō-Juei" War Steve Payne In 1213 on this day the Catharist, Aragonese and Catalan forces of Peter II of Aragon defeated the Crusading army of Simon IV de Montfort in a battle fought at Muret in south-western France. Count Raymond VI of Toulouse, Hero of the "Battle of Muret" Steve Payne
In 1197 on this day in Messina, his loyal German soldiers discovered a dastardly plot to poison their king, the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI. "Henry VI" survives poisoning to command the Fourth Crusade Steve Payne In 1380  on this day the unstopppable advance of the Tatar-Mongol Golden Horde continued at the Battle of Kulikovo Field with the defeat of combined Russian armies under the command of Dmitry of the Don.Dmitry of the Don falls at the "Battle of Kulikovo" Steve Payne In 1453 with his capital city besieged by a vast Ottoman Turk force Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos reluctantly declared "Better the Cardinals hat turban than the Sultans turban!".Better the "Cardinal's hat" than the Sultan's turban! Steve Payne

In 1191 the Battle of Arsuf was lost because the indiscipline of the Hospitallers caused King Richards tactical plan to unravel.Saracen Victory at the "Battle of Arsuf" Steve Payne In 1260 in a battle fought by the Arbia torrent near Montaperti Castle between two factions (Florentine and the Sienese) at least nominally supporting the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire, the family of the dukes of Bavaria (better known as the Guelphs) crushed their local rivals the Ghibellines.Guelph family win the "Battle of Montaperti" Steve Payne In 1444 although they exposed the weakness of pike formations against artillery, the outnumbered forces of the Swiss Confederacy were able to safely withdraw from Basel to the small hospital of St. Jakob having earned the huge satisfaction of inflicting a brutal assault upon the invading French army.Old Swiss Confederacy punish French at "St. Jakob" Steve Payne
In 1526 on this day a glorious victory at the Battle of Mohács ensured that King Louis II fended off the Ottoman invasion and maintained the grip of the Jagiellon dynasty (coat of arms pictured) on the throne of Hungary and Bohemia.Famous Hungarian Victory at the "Battle of Mohács" Steve Payne In 1278 on this day a Bohemian army led by the Přemyslid king Ottokar II (pictured) survived a late ambush from Imperial-Hungarian forces to win the decisive Battle on the Marchfeld fought at Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen."Přemyslid Dynasty" seize Central Europe Steve Payne In 1071 on this day Byzantine control of Anatolia and Armenia seem to be assured by the decisive defeat of the Seljuq Turks at the Battle of Manzikert.Byzantine Victory at "Battle of Manzikert" Steve Payne
In 1595 greatly outnumbered by a ratio of 10:1, a small Wallachian force of Janissaries led by Michael the Brave (pictured) was annihilated by Sinan Pashas Ottoman army at the Battle of Călugăreni.Famous Ottoman victory at the "Battle of Călugăreni" Steve Payne In 1241 the seemingly unstoppable progress of the Mongol invasion of European gathered further momentum as the combined defending forces of Poles, Czechs and Germans under the command of the Polish duke Henry II the Pious of Silesia (supported by feudal nobility and a few knights from military orders sent by the Pope) were slaughtered at the Battle of the Field of Legnica also called Walstadt. Mongols march to the "Great Sea" Steve Payne In 1453 following the resettlement of the Italian Peninsula the City of Nova Roma was officially reverted back to Byzantium, itself a Latinization of the original Greek name Byzantion.Reversion of "Byzantium" Steve Payne
In 1513 at Guinegate in the Pas-de-Calais department of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, a body of French cavalry under Jacques de La Palice managed to survive a surprise attack by English and Imperial troops under Henry VIII and Maximilian I.French victory at the "Battle of the Spurs" Steve Payne In 1385 this day marked the de facto Castilian conquest of Portugal because the army of King John I and his  Aragonese, Italian and French allies emerged victorious from the decisive Battle of Aljubarrota fought at São Jorge place, between the towns of Leiria and Alcobaça.

Castilian victory at the "Battle of Aljubarrota" Steve Payne In 1099 on this day the numerically-superior Fatimid army defeated the crusader army led by Godfrey of Bouillon. This unexpected crushing defeat at the Battle of  Ashkelon immediately threatened the security of newly-occupied Jerusalem.Fatimid Victory at the "Battle of Ascalon" Steve Payne

In 1121 on this day invading Seljuk forces under the command of the famous General Ilghazi crushed King David IVs Georgian Army in an epic battle fought at the Gates of Muslim-held Tbilisi.David the Builder defeated at the "Battle of Didgori" Steve Payne In 1460 on this day Mary of Guelders the Queen Consort of Scotland was <a href=>tragically killed by an exploding Mons Meg siege gun</a> at Roxburgh Castle in the Borders.King of Scotland "James of the fiery face" lives Steve Payne In 1462 on this day a twenty-three thousand man Ottoman army under the command of Sinan bey was ambushed by Albanian forces in the Mokra Valley.Ottoman Victory at the "Second Battle of Mokra" Steve Payne
"Frederick the Wise" Elected Holy Roman Emperor Jeff Provine "Henry VIII" Elected Holy Roman Emperor Jeff Provine In 1618 the Spanish coastal town of Malaga witnessed one of the most gruesome acts of mass murder ever perpetrated on European soil as British occupation troops and Spanish Protestant militias joined forces to slaughter nearly twelve hundred Spanish Catholics for allegedly plotting to revolt against the local British garrison commander; whether such a conspiracy actually existed or was just a ruse has still not been proven to this day, but the massacre would prove to have dire repercussions for Anglo-Spanish relations for nearly two centuries afterwards.Ill Wind: "Malaga Massacre" Chris Oakley
In 1479 on this day future Queen Joanna of England was born in Toledo, Spain. She was the third child and second daughter of Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon of the royal House of Trastámara.Happy Endings: "Part 10" Arthur and Joanna of Castille Steve Payne In 1567 finally Mary, Queen of Scots found enduring happiness with her third husband James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell who she married on this historic day at the Holyrood Palace in the great city of Edinburgh. In fact, the Queen was so <a href=>madly in love</a> with Bothwell that she now appeared to give up even her Catholicism for him because the wedding was conducted according to the Protestant rites.Happy Endings: "Part 4" Mary & Bothwell Steve Payne In 1566 on this day an incredible demonstration of will power and steely resolve by Mary, Queen of Scots saved the life of her Torinese private secretary, David Rizzio.Mary, Queen of Scots defends David Rizzio: "Part One" Steve Payne
In 1567 on this day Mary, Queen of Scots murdered Lord Darnley (pictured), her cousin, estranged husband and also the father of her infant son James Stuart. His body (and that of his servant) was secretly buried in the orchard of Kirk o Field, Edinburgh, where they had been staying.Mary, Queen of Scots defends David Rizzio: "Part Two" Steve Payne In 1584 on this day in Delft, William the Silent (pictured) survived the <a href=>weakest of attempts</a> on his life by that miserable excuse for an assassin <a href=>Balthasar Gérard</a>. The incredibly inept Frenchman  failed to get even one of his three pistol shots on target."William the Silent" Lives Steve Payne What If King Richard III Had Won at "Bosworth Field"? Rooksmoor

In 1491 King Henry VIII, second monarch of the House of Tudor, was born - beginning the golden age of the British Royal Family. Birth of "King Henry VIII" Chris Collins In 1661 undone by the boldness of his republican activities during the Interregnum that followed the <a href=>Wars of the Three Kingdoms</a>, John Milton was <a href=>executed at the Tower of London</a> by order of the restored Stuart monarch, King Charles II.Poet John Milton is martyred in "Paradise Stolen" Steve Payne In 1400 the treasonous intent of the final stanza of "<a href=>The Complaint of Chaucer to his Purse</a>" was punished by Henry Bolingbroke; the King signed an execution order for the poets beheading.The Beheading of "Geoffrey Chaucer" at Poet's Corner Steve Payne
In 1606 five months after the <a href=>Gunpowder Plot succeeded</a>, the dramatically altered political context permitted the bard William Shakespeare to pen <a href=>Henry VII</a>, a biting anti-monarchist satire of the protaganist and his immediate successors.Shakespeare writes "Henry VII" Steve Payne 'Tis The East: "Part 1" Chris Oakley It is 1511 and all of England is rejoicing at the birth of Henry, Duke of Cornwall, to King Henry VIII and his beloved Queen Katherine of Aragon. Birth of Henry, "Duke of Cornwall" Jackie Rose
"Marco Polo" Born Matt Dattillo Non-AH Content In 1600 on this day in Sekigahara, forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori (including many clans from Western Japan) won the Battle for the Sundered Realm.Tokugawa clan lose the "Battle of Sekigahara" Steve Payne In 1536 physician and alchemist Theophrastus Phillippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus, apparently succeeds in synthesizing gold from lead and other base elements.When word of his discovery leaks out and his efforts are duplicated, panic sweeps Europe at the prospect of a financial collapse. Particularly hard-hit is Spain, which had been levering its expropriating of Aztec and Inca precious metals to increase its political power. With alchemical gold far cheaper to produce than natural gold is to mine and refine and impossible to tell from the natural product by sixteenth-century methods, the bottom drops out of the gold market.Paracelsus transmutes base metals into "Gold" Eric Lipps
In 1242 the inevitable consequence of sending an <a href=>undersized army</a> finally caught up with the Mongols invaders when their conquest of Europe eventually faltered in Eastern France."Mongol Conquest" of Europe Falters Steve Payne What If Queen "Elizabeth I" Had Married and Had Children? Rooksmoor By 1601 Tudor England stood on the cusp of dissolution, but the insidious forces of commercialism that had been nurtured by unscrupulous politicians such as the Cecil Family were suppressed at the last by those noblemen of ancient lineage that Queen Elizabeth had unwisely chosen to ignore throughout her long reign."Tudor B*stards" end the English Succession Crisis Steve Payne

In 1565 not a man to be easily fooled by his treacherous Muslim commanders, the de-facto King of the Vijayanagar Empire (flag pictured) Aliya Rama Raya summarily dismissed the Gilani brothers before defeating the Deccan Sultanate Army in a mighty battle fought in northern Karnataka, about eighty kilometres to the southeast of the city of Bijapur.Aliya Rama Raya wins the "Battle of Talikota" Steve Payne In 1458 on this day <a href=>Philip IV the Duke of Burgundy</a> was born in Dijon to Charles the Bold and his second wife Isabella of Bourbon.The "Last Move" of the Spider King Steve Payne In 1566 a rebellion against the ardent militant religious policies of Roman Catholicism was sparked in the Low Countries by the harsh but empathetic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V passing the throne to a Spanish-raised son who spoke neither Dutch nor French.Backlash to the Spanish Suppression of the "Dutch Revolt" Steve Payne
Away all Boats: "Part 1" Chris Oakley In 1212 on this day the Battle of Al-Uqab was won by an Almohad army led by the sultan Caliph al-Nasir.Muslim Princes win the "Battle of Al-Uqab" Steve Payne In 1346 on this day the urgent need to re-configure the out-dated crossbow and knight combination was demonstrated by the <a href=>narrow margin of the hard-fought French victory</a> at the Battle of Crécy.French Win the "Battle of Crécy" Steve Payne
In 1190 on this day the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa took off his heavy armour suite before bathing in the Göksu River in Anatolia, a sensible precaution that enabled him to make it safely back to the river bank when a fast current very nearly swept him away."Frederick Barbarossa" survives to lead Kings Crusade Steve Payne In 1488 on this day the Italian navigator Cristoforo Colombo entered the Lisbon quarters of his brother, the cartographer Bartolomeo with an application for royal funds to be presented at the English Court.The "English" discover the Americas Steve Payne In 1548 on this day an extraordinary meeting of the Privy Council ordered the imprisonment of the vice-treasurer of the Bristol Mint, Sir William Sharington.Thomas Seymour overthrows the "Government" Steve Payne
In 1166 on this day the future Angevin Emperor John Lackland was born to Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine."John Lackland", Angevin Emperor Steve Payne In 1552 on this day Princess Elizabeth Tudor accepted a proposal of marriage from the Tsar of All Russia Ivan IV Vasilyevich.Queen Elizabeth I marries "Ivan the Terrified" Steve Payne In 1670 on this day a gang led by the well-known ruffian Thomas Blood murdered James Butler, the 1st Duke of Ormonde (pictured) while riding in his carriage in central London.Fate of the "Eminence Grise" Steve Payne

In 1543 on this day the two warring realms of Protestant England and Catholic Scotland were finally brought together in <a href=>indissoluble union</a> by the betrothal of Mary Stuart and Edward Tudor."Treaty of Greenwich" is signed Steve Payne In 1542 on this day James V King of Scots died at his Inverness Palace shortly after a nervous collapse which was caused by the catastrophic defeat at the hands of the English armies of Henry IX.Death of "James V" King of Scots Steve Payne In 1616 on this day the playwright William Shakespeare died of a heart attack after an uproarious night out drinking with the poet Ben Jonson.Death of the "Bard" Steve Payne
In 1590 as a harmless piece of Christmas mischief the players of the Lord Chamberlains Men penned a collaborative piece of works called Richard III under the pseudonym "William Shakespeer".All the World's a "Stage" Steve Payne In 1536 on this day the forty-four year old King of England, Henry VIII was killed in a jousting accident at Greenwich Palace."Philip II of Spain" saves King Henry IX Steve Payne In 1297 on this day Andrew de Morays Scottish rebel army of the North arrived too late to prevent the heavily outnumbered forces of William Wallace from crashing to defeat at the Battle of Stirling Bridge.Scots lose the "Battle of Stirling Bridge" Steve Payne
In 1415 on St Crispins Day the numerically superior forces of King Charles VI of France crushed the army of King Henry V of England at the decisive Battle of Agincourt which ended the dynastic struggle between the Royal Houses of Valois and Plantagenet.French win the "Battle of Agincourt" Steve Payne In 1214 on this day John Lackland King of England brought the twelve year old Angevin-Flanders War to a decision with a glorious victory against his rival Philip II of France at the Battle of Bouvines. King John wins the "Battle of Bouvines" Steve Payne In 1170 on this day in the Kingdom of Jerusalem William of Tyre discovered that a young member of the royal household had contracted Hansens Disease. In his book Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum he recorded the gruesome discovery ~ "It so happened that once when he was playing with some other noble boys who were with him, they began pinching one another with their fingernails on the hands and arms, as playful boys will do.The long reign of "Baldwin the Magnificent" Steve Payne
In 1066 on this day an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada of Norway defeated an English army under King Harold Godwinson at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire.Battle of "Stamford Bridge" Steve Payne In 1187 on this day after months of bitter feuding the announcement in the Crusader War Council of a crazy, damn-fool decision to endanger the Frankish forces by moving the Army east of its defences triggered a fierce backlash against the eighteen months of misrule of the King of Jerusalem, Guy of Lusignan.Meltdown in the "Crusader War Council" Steve Payne King Harold defeated at the "Battle of Stamford Bridge" Rooksmoor

In 1260 on this day the Mongol Ilkhanate leader Hulagu Khan decisively defeated the Mamluk Sultanate at the Battle of Ain Jalut in eastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley.Mongol victory at the "Battle of Ain Jalut" Steve Payne King Richard III victorious at "Bosworth Field" Rooksmoor In 1131 on this day the magnates of England <a href=>renewed their oaths</a> to the Empress Matilda (so-called because of her marriage to Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor).Norman State breaks-up during "The Anarchy" Steve Payne
WI Paganism halted advance of "Christianity "? Rooksmoor WI "Belgium" had never been? Rooksmoor Murder was the Case, "Part 6" Chris Oakley
Moroccans Rout "Would-be Crusaders" in Spain Jeff Provine "Geoffrey Chaucer" freed from Prison Jeff Provine In 1067 on this day the former Earl of Wessex Harold Godwinson was crowned High King of the British Isles by the Anglo-Saxon Advisory Council known as the Witenagemot.Norman Conquest of "France" Steve Payne
In 1588 Elizabeths protestant throne was saved by Sir Francis Drake,a symbol of English nonchalance and cunning in the face of danger. He insisted on finishing his game of bowls on Plymouth Hoe as the Spanish Armada approached. Then he despatched the enemy ships with little more than a few burning rowing boats and a favourable breeze. "Drake Saves England" John Ezard In 1588 on this day a fleet of 130 Spanish naval vessels, dispatched from Lisbon three days earlier to rendezvous with the Duke of Parmas 300-ship flotilla in advance of a planned Spanish invasion of England, met with disaster when it ran into a massive storm that savaged it with torrential rains and hurricane-force winds. 123 of the 130 vessels in the Lisbon squadron were lost in storm, which subsequently turned north and inflicted substantial losses on the Duke of Parmas fleet-- less than a third of the Dukes 300 ships would survive the ordeal."The Armada Storm" Chris Oakley In 1590 on this day a relief fleet comprising the Moonlight, Little John, Hopewell, and other ships commanded by Captain Christopher Newport arrived off the Chesapeake Bay in present-day North Carolina."Croatoan" Steve Payne

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A blog by Professor Jeff Provine dedicated to showing significant events in years past on this day that shaped history... just, not our history.

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